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## 4.1 Hardware and space required

Question:

What are the minimum hardware and space requirements for installing Red Hat Linux on my PC?

1620 MB for Server, 450 MB for Workstation , and 120 MB for Custom Install 16 MB RAM is recommended and can be installed on the Intel 386 to the latest P IIs.

## 4.2 Programming tools/compilers included

Question:

What Programming tools/compilers does Red Hat Linux ship?

C, C++, FORTRAN, Pascal, assembly, BASIC, perl, python, Tcl/Tk, LISP, Scheme, as well as a functional debugger and memory debugging library.

## 4.3 Multimedia tools included

Question:

What multimedia tools are shipped with the boxed set?

Image viewers for JPEG, GIF, PNG, TIFF, MPEG, AVI, and Quicktime video viewers.

## 4.4 Graphical programs included

Question:

What type of graphical program is shipped with Red Hat Linux?

GIMP, 1.0 an image manipulation, retouching, and paint program. See www.gimp.org for more information.

## 4.5 Publishing tools included

Question:

What types of Publishing tools are shipped with Red Hat Linux?

TeX, LaTex, groff text formatting systems, PostScript, PDF, and DVI previewers.

## 4.6 Mail server included

Question:

What mail servers are shipped with Red Hat Linux?

Sendmail. POP, and IMAP are also shipped.

## 4.7 Red Hat Linux as a file server

Question:

Can I use Red Hat Linux as a File Server?

Yes, we ship Samba and NFS to insure access to the File Server capabilities.

## 4.8 Does Red Hat Linux include an X windows system?

Question:

Does Red Hat Linux include an X windows system?

Yes, Xfree86 version 3.3.3.

## 4.9 Running Windows programs in Red Hat Linux

Question:

Will my Microsoft applications be able to run on Red Hat Linux?

No, only Linux based applications will run on the Red Hat Linux OS. However, it is possible to download a read-only windows emulator at www.winehq.com. You can also run vmware, which is a virtual machine which will run Linux and another operating system concurrently. For more information, see www.vmware.com

## 4.10 Obtaining Red Hat Linux

Question:

How can I get Red Hat Linux?

Red Hat Linux is available on CD-ROM directly from Red Hat Software or various Red Hat Linux resellers; it is also available via FTP and its many mirror sites. You may be able to purchase it from stores like "Wal-Mart", "CompUSA", and many other retail stores. Another place to purchase it is online from our E-commerce store.

Due to the Open Source licenses that Red Hat Inc uses for its products, many companies are able to download our source-code. It is licensed using the GPL

## 4.11 Installing multiple operating systems

Question:

I have a blank hard drive and would like to install DOS or Windows 95 and Linux onto it. What is the best method of doing this?

It is recommended to install the other operating system first, before installing Linux. This allows the other OS to get comfortable with the hardware and possibly write values to the Master Boot Record (MBR) that it would just over-write if Linux was installed first.

You will probably need to do this in a several step method, however. First start the install, but if the operating system partitions the entire drive for itself, see if you can bail out early and use the native fdisk to create a primary partition of the size you want to leave for the OS. Then reboot and go through the install again and normally the OS will just use the space that you just set aside. Once the install is finished, you can begin the Linux installation.

## 4.12 Creating an installation boot disk

Question:

How do I create an installation boot disk?

To create the boot disk with the new images, you can either use the dd command under UNIX/Linux:

 dd if=boot.img of=/dev/fd0 bs=1440k 

Or you can use the rawrite command in the /dosutils directory on the CD-ROM. There is documentation on using rawrite in /dosutils/rawrite3.doc.

To make floppies under DOS, Win95, or NT:

1. Boot DOS and change to the CD-ROM directory.
 
2. Enter the dosutils directory and run rawrite.
 cd \dosutils rawrite.exe 
3. When prompted for a disk for the boot image enter:
 \path\to\boot.img 
4. Then run rawrite again and when prompted enter:
 \path\to\supp.img 
The .img files are boot images and can be found in your images directory on the Red Hat Linux CD #1.

## 4.13 Difference between Linux and DOS disk names

Question:

I have an IDE system, and I am confused by how Linux sets up drives in comparison to DOS. Can you explain this?

Linux sets up the drive system in a very different pattern than DOS, and this can be rather confusing. Instead of calling the first hard drive C:, it will be usually be a combination of letters signifying what kind of BUS (sd for SCSI, hd for IDE) and on which sequence it was detected. Finally a number is tagged onto the end to specify which partition on the drive is being referenced.

For IDE hard drives the layout depends on which IDE channel the drive is on and whether it is the master or slave on that channel.

 Channel Jumper hdx =================================== ide0 master hda ide0 slave hdb ide1 master hdc ide1 slave hdd ide2 master hde ide2 slave hdf ide3 master hdg ide3 slave hdh ide0 = primary ide1 = secondary ide2 = tertiary ide3 = quarternary 

The partition number follows an old PC standard that there are a limit of 4 primary partitions per hard drive, but one of those partitions can be designated as an extended partition. Inside of this extended partition, logical partitions can be specified (for most drives you can have 12 logical drives in the extended partition for 16 partitions all together).

The numbering scheme is broken into the following:

• 1-4 primary partitions
• 5-16 logical partitions

## 4.14 Installation problems with IDE CD-ROM

Question:

Linux is having trouble detecting my IDE CD-ROM drive during the install. Can I force the install to see it?

Sometimes IDE CD-ROM drives will not be detected either due to the fact that they are on a IDE channel the BIOS doesn't know about, or that when queried, replies back with data that Linux thinks is bogus (Early NEC IDE CD-ROMs respond with data saying that it is an IDE floppy drive instead of a CD-ROM.)

To solve your problem, you need to specify the the CD-ROM drive from the LILO boot prompt.

When you see

 boot: 
or
 LILO: 

You need to type in

 linux hdX=cdrom 

where X is the IDE letter that Linux would specify for that drive depending on which IDE bus it is on.

## 4.15 Installing Red Hat Linux from a hard drive

Question:

I do not have a CD-ROM that will work with Linux and I can not install from the network. Is there another method?

If you are going to need to do a hard drive install due to some problem with your CD-ROM, you will need to follow these steps.

Have a DOS partition that is formatted in FAT16, and create a directory called \RedHat. From there you will need to copy the items from the CD-ROM over to the hard-drive.

 mkdir C:\RedHat mkdir C:\RedHat\base mkdir C:\RedHat\RPMS copy E:\RedHat\base C:\RedHat\base copy E:\RedHat\RPMS C:\RedHat\RPMS 

If you do not have enough disk space for copying the entire RPMS directory tree over to your hard-drive, you will need to look in the file \RedHat\base\comps file for the RPMS that are needed in the base and any other sections you feel you need.

Once you have done this, you can start the install and choose a hard drive install. You will be asked to insert the supplemental floppy and a progress meter will pop-up to show you what is happening. Once the supplemental disk has been loaded, you will be presented with the next screen on the install.

## 4.16 Laptop Installation Problems

Question:

I am having trouble getting Linux setup on my laptop computer. What should I do?

Laptops are one of the hardest pieces of hardware to support in the industry. Many times the company that constructs the hardware has to tweak a chipset to make it fit in the confined structure or meet certain power requirements. These changes are usually only documented internally for trade secret reasons, and only can be reverse-engineered or reverse-worked around.

When Red Hat support finds itself with a laptop question our first and sometimes only reference is the Linux Laptop Pages, which can be found at:

## 4.17 Signal 11 or Signal 7 problems during install

Question:

During the install, I get a fatal signal 11 or signal 7. What does this mean and what can I do?

Signal 11's and signal 7's are errors indicating a hardware error in memory or on the bus. This can be due to problems in executables or with the hardware of the system. The Linux kernel uses a lot more capabilities of the CPU, Cache, and memory, and is more prone to faulting on marginal hardware.

The first thing to do is check to see if you have the latest installation and supplemental floppies from Red Hat. Check the errata for updates and also the FTP site to see if newer versions are available. If the latest images still fail, it may be due to hardware. Common suspects are memory or CPU-cache. Try turning off the CPU-cache in the BIOS and see if the problem goes away. Also try swapping memory around in the motherboard slots to see if it is either slot or memory related.

The premier site on the net for this problem can be found at http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/

## 4.18 Upgrade problem: can't find a valid RPM data base error

Question:

I am trying to upgrade my earlier Red Hat system to the current release, but it complains that it can't find a valid RPM data base. What do I need to do?

The problem is that a very few earlier versions of RPM would write the database in a way that seems corrupted to later versions. Rebuilding the database fixes the install problems. We will need to upgrade RPM on your system to the one on the installation CD-ROM, and rebuild the databases.

First thing to do is mount the latest CD-ROM on the system.

 mount /mnt/cdrom 

After doing this upgrade 'rpm' off the CD-ROM like so:

 cd /mnt/cdrom/RedHat/RPMS rpm -Uvh --nodeps --force rpm-*rpm 

When the new RPM is installed, rebuild the database.

 rpm --rebuilddb 

This will put the database in a format that the installation RPM can use (since they are the same.)

## 4.19 Booting Linux from the installation boot disk

Question:

I have Linux installed on an IDE drive, and for whatever reason I need to boot from floppy. How can I boot my system from the installation boot disk?

If you have installed Linux onto an IDE hard-drive, you can boot from the installation floppy using the following method.

Insert the installation floppy and restart the machine. At the boot: prompt type the following:

 vmlinuz root=/dev/hdXY [Example: vmlinuz root=/dev/hdb5 ] 

Where X = is the Linux drive letter and Y is the partition on the drive you installed the root (/) partition to.

## 4.20 Where to go for updates

Question:

Where can I find updates for packages shipped with Red Hat Linux?

Red Hat, Inc. posts all official updates at http://www.redhat.com/errata. You can also go to our updates FTP site

Also check the contrib directory on our FTP mirrors for packages that users have contributed. We also make periodic announcements to the redhat-announce-list with updates.

## 4.21 Contents of the 2nd RPM CD

Question:

During the install, I was not asked to use the 2nd CD-ROM. When I use the X program glint on it, it reports that there are no RPMs, but when I look at the directories, I see lots of them. What is going on?

The 2nd CD-ROM in the Red Hat Linux boxed set contains the source code RPMs (SRPM) for all of the Open Source applications that are on the first CD-ROM. From these source RPMs, you can build all the Open Source applications we have in the distribution.

The reason that glint does not see source RPMs is due to that SRPMS are not stored in any of the RPM databases. This makes it almost impossible to tell if you have installed an src.rpm before or are over-writing an older version. Thus you will need to use the plain RPM command to install these items.

rpm -ivh < filename >  will install the source code into the directory that the maintainer of that SRPM used. The data in src.rpms packaged by Red Hat are installed into /usr/src/redhat by default.

Rebuilding and improving on rpms is beyond the scope of this answer. The book Maximum RPM and the man pages are good sources of information on this.

## 4.22 Installing RPM packages

Question:

How do I install an RPM package?

For most things, you can type

 rpm -Uvh filename. 

This will upgrade the RPM if you already have it on your machine. One occasion when you would not want to use the U flag is when you are installing a kernel. If you are installing a kernel, you'll want to leave your old kernel there in case the new one does not boot. For more information about installing new kernels, please see our Kernel Upgrade HOWTO.

Question:

How do I use RPM? What are some general commands that I will use with this command? Also, for whatever reason, I think files have changed on my system but I don't know which ones. Can RPM help?

In general, normal usage of the rpm command can be summarized as follows:

To install a package: rpm -ivh < filename >

 rpm -ivh somepackage.1.1-4.i386.rpm 

To upgrade a package: rpm -Uvh < filename >

 rpm -Uvh somepackage.1.1-5.i386.rpm 

To remove a package: rpm -e < packagename >

 rpm -e somepackage 

Also for upgrading or installing some packages you may need to use additional flags to force the install happen. It is only recommended to use these if you know why these flags were needed.

 --force will overwrite files that are owned by other packages. --nodeps will install even if the package needs packages that were not installed. 

Querying

To see if a package is installed: rpm -q < packagename >

 rpm -q somepackage 

To get info on an installed package: rpm -qi < packagename >

 rpm -qi somepackage 

To list which files belong to a package: rpm -ql < packagename > 

 rpm -ql somepackage 

To see what package a file belongs to: rpm -qf < path-to-filename > 

 rpm -qf /usr/bin/some_executable 

One can usually join various query commands together, so rpm -qil will give info and list all the files in the package.

To look at an RPM filename that isn't installed, you add the p to the query line.

 rpm -qilp somepackage.1.1-4.i386.rpm 

This will list the information and the files contained in somepackage.

More advanced usages can be found in the man page for RPM and at the web site, http://www.rpm.org

Verification

To see what files on the system may have changed from their initial settings you can use RPM, to check up on them.

 rpm -Va 

will give you a list of all files that have changed in one form or another since the package it is associated was installed. This can be a lot of files (and a lot may be changed due to post installation work). To just see what packages have changed so that you can verify them more individually, you can do the following:

## 4.34 Getting online with a modem

Question:

I can't get my modem to work. Can you help?

First, check to see if your modem is a supported device. Double check the Hardware Compatibility List at: http://www.redhat.com/support/hardware/index.html

Verify that your modem is being detected by the system and that it is not conflicting with other resources. You can check this with the following commands (as seen in this example):

 cat /proc/ioports 0000-001f : dma1 0020-003f : pic1 0040-005f : timer 0060-006f : keyboard 0070-007f : rtc 0080-008f : dma page reg 00a0-00bf : pic2 00c0-00df : dma2 00f0-00ff : fpu 0170-0177 : ide1 01f0-01f7 : ide0 0220-022f : soundblaster 02f8-02ff : serial(auto) 0330-0333 : MPU-401 UART 0376-0376 : ide1 0388-038b : Yamaha OPL3 03c0-03df : vga+ 03f6-03f6 : ide0 03f8-03ff : serial(auto) d000-d07f : eth0 d800-d807 : ide0 d808-d80f : ide1 cat /proc/interrupts CPU0 0: 1296380 XT-PIC timer 1: 30736 XT-PIC keyboard 2: 0 XT-PIC cascade 5: 1 XT-PIC soundblaster 8: 1 XT-PIC rtc 10: 73593 XT-PIC eth0 12: 159669 XT-PIC PS/2 Mouse 13: 1 XT-PIC fpu 14: 246863 XT-PIC ide0 15: 584998 XT-PIC ide1 NMI: 0 

to make certain none of your resources are conflicting. Examples of this would be your modem and some other port sharing an interrupt. In the PC world, COM 1 (/dev/ttyS0) and COM 3 (/dev/ttyS3) will try to share the same interrupt unless told otherwise. While this works in some systems, we have generally found that it leads to a degradation of service.

Next, we recommend that you use minicom to double check that you are getting a signal back from your modem. Once you have determined this, refer to the following sites for information on setting up a PPP connection using wvdial, linuxconf, etc: http://www.redhat.com/support/resources/tips/PPP-Client-Tips/PPP-Client-Tips.html

Questions like this are also excellent questions for the Red Hat users' mailing list. There are many experienced Red Hat users on the list who might be of assistance on a matter of this sort. To subscribe to redhat-list, send mail to redhat-list-request@redhat.com with the following in the subject line:

 subscribe 

Leave the body empty.

There is also a compiled listing of past posts to this group, You may find the answer to your question there:

There are, of course many commercial UNIX support organizations that may provide support for specific applications; we encourage you to contact them to enquire about their Linux support options.

## 4.35 Preventing Netscape from crashing

Question:

Netscape keeps crashing when I reach a page with Java applets in it. I have also noticed that some of my applications do not display fonts correctly. What is going on?

There is a problem in one of the installation RPMS in that many systems do not have a complete list of fontpath for X to use.

To see if this is the problem you are facing, use the command:

 chkfontpath --list 

You should get output that looks like the following:

Current directories in font path:

 1: /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc:unscaled 2: /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi:unscaled 3: /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi:unscaled 4: /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc 5: /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/Type1 6: /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/Speedo 

You should then add the 75dpi scaled font to your path list using the command:

 chkfontpath --add /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi 

This should fix the problem you are seeing.

However, if problems persist check the following as well:

(or Help -- release notes in the menu)

Basically, if Netscape exhibits consistent problems on pages containing Javascript, check your  /.mailcap file, and remove this line if it is in that file:

 application/x-javascript;;\ x-mozilla-flags=save 

## 4.36 Problems trying to connect with Netscape

Question:

I can dial up to my ISP just fine, but I can't use Netscape. It says "cannot connect to remote host." What is wrong?

What you are seeing occurs from one of two problems. The first problem is that your DNS (Domain Name Server) is not being set correctly during dial-up. Red Hat Linux 6.2 uses uwvdial which can determine this for most ISPs, but may have problems with some.

For Red Hat Linux 6.0 and earlier you will need to specify your ISP's DNS servers in your /etc/resolv.conf. Contact your ISP for this information and edit the file to include those settings.

Here's an example:

 search example.com example.com nameserver 198.79.53.11 nameserver 198.79.53.10 
Another reason for this problem is expecting action like the Windows environment. When Windows detects that you are looking for something on a network and you have a modem in your system, it will try to start that modem connection. Linux currently requires you to start the connection manually (easiest through the X Window System program usernet).

## 4.37 Boot hangs during sendmail, httpd, or smb

Question:

I have installed Linux, and it seems to initially start booting. However it gets down to something called sendmail, httpd, or smb and then the machine seems to hang. What is happening and what should I do?

 127.0.0.1 localhost localhost.localdomain 192.168.200.1 mymachine mymachine.mynetwork.net