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[dm-devel] [PATCH] [RFC] Implements log-structured caching target



This patch introduces dm-lc,
a new target implements log-structured caching.

To understand what dm-lc is these slides will be your help.
1. https://github.com/akiradeveloper/dm-lc/blob/develop/what-is-dm-lc.pdf
This slide explains the internal optimizations in dm-lc.
Experiments shows dm-lc can accelerate write performance 259 times.
2. https://github.com/akiradeveloper/dm-lc/blob/develop/dm-lc-admin.pdf
This slide explains the grand design overview of dm-lc
which may help you understand the code.

See also
Documentation/device-mapper/dm-lc.txt

Quick Start:
Userland tools and quick start scripts are provided in my Github repo.
  https://github.com/akiradeveloper/dm-lc
1. Clone it.
2. Read "Quick Start" in README.md .

---
 Documentation/device-mapper/dm-lc.txt |  183 ++
 drivers/md/Kconfig                    |    9 +
 drivers/md/Makefile                   |    1 +
 drivers/md/dm-lc.c                    | 3337 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 4 files changed, 3530 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/device-mapper/dm-lc.txt
 create mode 100644 drivers/md/dm-lc.c

diff --git a/Documentation/device-mapper/dm-lc.txt b/Documentation/device-mapper/dm-lc.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5adce72
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/device-mapper/dm-lc.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,183 @@
+dm-lc
+=====
+
+dm-lc provides write-back log-structured caching.
+It batches random writes into a big sequential write.
+
+1. Setup
+========
+dm-lc is composed of two target_type instances named lc and lc-mgr.
+
+- lc target is responsible for creating logical volumes and controlling ios.
+- lc-mgr target is reponsible for doing
+  formatting/initializing/destructing cache devices.
+  Operating dm-lc through these native interfaces are not recommended.
+
+Nice userland tools are provided in
+	https://github.com/akiradeveloper/dm-lc
+
+To install the tools, cd Admin directory and run
+	python setup.py install
+and you are a dm-lc admin.
+
+2. Admin example
+================
+Let's create a logical volume named myLV
+backed by /dev/myVg/myBacking and
+uses /dev/myCache as a cache device.
+
+myLV |-- (backing store) /dev/myVg/myBacking
+     |-- (cache device)  /dev/myCache
+
+Note that backing store is limited to a LVM device
+in the current implementation.
+
+1. Format myCache
+Format the on-disk metadata blocks on a device.
+Be careful, this operation erases
+all the existing data on the cache device.
+
+	lc-format-cache /dev/myCache
+
+2. Create myLV
+Create a logical volume simply backed by a existing volume.
+We give device ID 5 to the volume in this example.
+
+As of now, this operation create a logical volume
+with different name from the backing store.
+But some users don't want to change the name
+because the backing store is in operation
+and want to apply dm-lc on the fly.
+This can be technically realizable
+but I haven't implemented it at this time
+because it is too tricky.
+
+	lc-create myLV 5 /dev/myVg/myBacking
+
+3. Resume myCache
+Resuming cache device builds in-memory structures
+such as a hashtable scanned from the on-disk metadata.
+We give cache ID 3 to the device in this example.
+
+Be careful,
+you MUST create all the LVs
+as the destinations of the dirty blocks on the cache device
+before this operation.
+Otherwise, the kernel may crash.
+
+	lc-resume 3 /dev/myCache
+
+4. Attach myCache to myLV
+To start caching writes submitted to the myLV,
+you must attach myLV to myCache.
+This can be done on the fly.
+
+	lc-attach 5 3
+
+5. Start userland daemon
+dm-lc provides daemon program that
+autonomously control the module behavior such as migration.
+
+	lc-daemon start
+
+6. Terminate myLV
+Safely terminating myLV already attached to myCache is fallible
+and that's one of the reasons dm-lc provides these admin tools.
+myLV can not detach from myCache
+until all the dirty caches on myCache are migrated to myBacking.
+
+	lc-detach 5
+	lc-remove 5
+
+7. Terminate myCache
+After detaching all the LVs that is attached to myCache.
+myCache can be terminated.
+
+	lc-daemon stop
+	lc-free-cache 3
+
+3. Sysfs
+========
+dm-lc provides some sysfs interfaces to control the module behavior.
+The sysfs tree is located under /sys/module/dm_lc.
+
+/sys/module/dm_lc
+|
+|-- devices
+|   `-- 5
+|       |-- cache_id
+|       |-- dev
+|       |-- device -> ../../../../devices/virtual/block/dm-0
+|       |-- migrate_threshold
+|       |-- nr_dirty_caches
+|
+|-- caches
+|   `-- 3
+|       |-- allow_migrate
+|       |-- barrier_deadline_ms
+|       |-- commit_super_block
+|       |-- commit_super_block_interval
+|       |-- device -> ../../../../devices/virtual/block/dm-1
+|       |-- flush_current_buffer
+|       |-- flush_current_buffer_interval
+|       |-- force_migrate
+|       |-- last_flushed_segment_id
+|       |-- last_migrated_segment_id
+|       |-- nr_max_batched_migration
+|       `-- update_interval
+
+4. Technical Issues
+===================
+There are not a few technical issues that
+distinguishes dm-lc from other cache softwares.
+
+4.1 RAM buffer and immediate completion
+dm-lc allocated RAM buffers of 64MB in total by default.
+All of the writes are first stored in one of these RAM buffers
+and immediate completion is notified to the upper layer
+that is quite fast in few microseconds.
+
+4.2 Metadata durability
+After RAM buffer gets full or some deadline comes
+dm-lc creates segment log that combines RAM buffer and its metadata.
+Metadata have information such as relation between
+address in the cache device and the counterpart in the backing store.
+As the segment log is finally written to persistent cache device,
+any data will not be lost due to machine failure.
+
+4.3 Asynchronous log flushing
+dm-lc has a background worker called flush daemon.
+Flushing segment log starts from simply queueing the flush task.
+Flush daemon in background periodically checks if the queue has some tasks
+and actually executes the tasks if exists.
+The fact that the upper layer doesn't block in queueing the task
+maximizes the write throughput
+that is measured as 259MB/s random writes
+with cache device of 266MB/s sequential write which is only 3% loss
+and 1.5GB/s theoritically with a fast enough cache like PCI-e SSDs.
+
+4.4 Deferred ack for REQ_FUA or REQ_FLUSH bios
+Some applications such as NFS, journal filesystems
+and databases often submit SYNC write that
+incurs bios flagged with REQ_FUA or REQ_FLUSH.
+Handling these unusual bios immediately and thus synchronously
+desparately deteriorates the whole throughput.
+To address this issue, dm-lc handles acks for these bios
+lazily or in deferred manner.
+Completion related to these bios will not be done until
+they are written persistently to the cache device
+so this storategy doesn't betray the semantics.
+In the worst case scenario, a bio with some of these flags
+is completed in deadline period that is configurable
+in barrier_deadline_ms in sysfs.
+
+4.5 Asynchronous and autonomous migration
+Some time after a log segment is flushed to the cache device
+it will be migrated to the backing store.
+Migrate daemon is also a background worker
+that periodically checks if log segments to migrate exist.
+
+Restlessly migrating highly burdens backing store
+so migration is preferable to execute when the backing store is in lazy time.
+lc-daemon in userland surveils the load of the backing store
+and autonomously turns on and off migration according to the load.
diff --git a/drivers/md/Kconfig b/drivers/md/Kconfig
index 30b426e..a9941f4 100644
--- a/drivers/md/Kconfig
+++ b/drivers/md/Kconfig
@@ -290,6 +290,15 @@ config DM_CACHE_CLEANER
          A simple cache policy that writes back all data to the
          origin.  Used when decommissioning a dm-cache.
 
+config DM_LC
+	tristate "Log-structured Caching (EXPERIMENTAL)"
+	depends on BLK_DEV_DM
+	default y
+	---help---
+	  A cache layer that
+	  batches random writes into a big sequential write
+	  to a cache device in log-structured manner.
+
 config DM_MIRROR
        tristate "Mirror target"
        depends on BLK_DEV_DM
diff --git a/drivers/md/Makefile b/drivers/md/Makefile
index 5ef78ef..691682e 100644
--- a/drivers/md/Makefile
+++ b/drivers/md/Makefile
@@ -52,6 +52,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_DM_VERITY)		+= dm-verity.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_DM_CACHE)		+= dm-cache.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_DM_CACHE_MQ)	+= dm-cache-mq.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_DM_CACHE_CLEANER)	+= dm-cache-cleaner.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_DM_LC)		+= dm-lc.o
 
 ifeq ($(CONFIG_DM_UEVENT),y)
 dm-mod-objs			+= dm-uevent.o
diff --git a/drivers/md/dm-lc.c b/drivers/md/dm-lc.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b70ab38
--- /dev/null
+++ b/drivers/md/dm-lc.c
@@ -0,0 +1,3337 @@
+/*
+ * dm-lc.c : Log-structured Caching for Linux.
+ * Copyright (C) 2012-2013 Akira Hayakawa <ruby wktk gmail com>
+ *
+ * This file is released under the GPL.
+ */
+
+#define DM_MSG_PREFIX "lc"
+
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/version.h>
+#include <linux/list.h>
+#include <linux/slab.h>
+#include <linux/mutex.h>
+#include <linux/sched.h>
+#include <linux/timer.h>
+#include <linux/device-mapper.h>
+#include <linux/dm-io.h>
+
+#define LCERR(f, args...) \
+	DMERR("err %d " f, __LINE__, ## args)
+#define LCWARN(f, args...) \
+	DMWARN("warn %d " f, __LINE__, ## args)
+#define LCINFO(f, args...) \
+	DMINFO("info %d " f, __LINE__, ## args)
+
+/*
+ * (1 << x) sector.
+ * 4 <= x <= 11
+ * dm-lc supports segment size up to 1MB.
+ *
+ * All the comments are if
+ * the segment size is the maximum 1MB.
+ */
+#define LC_SEGMENTSIZE_ORDER 11
+
+/*
+ * By default,
+ * we allocate 64 * 1MB RAM buffers statically.
+ */
+#define NR_WB_POOL 64
+
+/*
+ * The first 4KB (1<<3 sectors) in segment
+ * is for metadata.
+ */
+#define NR_CACHES_INSEG ((1 << (LC_SEGMENTSIZE_ORDER - 3)) - 1)
+
+static void *do_kmalloc_retry(size_t size, gfp_t flags, int lineno)
+{
+	size_t count = 0;
+	void *p;
+
+retry_alloc:
+	p = kmalloc(size, flags);
+	if (!p) {
+		count++;
+		LCWARN("L%d size:%lu, count:%lu",
+		       lineno, size, count);
+		schedule_timeout_interruptible(msecs_to_jiffies(1));
+		goto retry_alloc;
+	}
+	return p;
+}
+#define kmalloc_retry(size, flags) \
+	do_kmalloc_retry((size), (flags), __LINE__)
+
+struct part {
+	void *memory;
+};
+
+struct arr {
+	struct part *parts;
+	size_t nr_elems;
+	size_t elemsize;
+};
+
+#define ALLOC_SIZE (1 << 16)
+static size_t nr_elems_in_part(struct arr *arr)
+{
+	return ALLOC_SIZE / arr->elemsize;
+};
+
+static size_t nr_parts(struct arr *arr)
+{
+	return dm_div_up(arr->nr_elems, nr_elems_in_part(arr));
+}
+
+static struct arr *make_arr(size_t elemsize, size_t nr_elems)
+{
+	size_t i, j;
+	struct part *part;
+
+	struct arr *arr = kmalloc(sizeof(*arr), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!arr) {
+		LCERR();
+		return NULL;
+	}
+
+	arr->elemsize = elemsize;
+	arr->nr_elems = nr_elems;
+	arr->parts = kmalloc(sizeof(struct part) * nr_parts(arr), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!arr->parts) {
+		LCERR();
+		goto bad_alloc_parts;
+	}
+
+	for (i = 0; i < nr_parts(arr); i++) {
+		part = arr->parts + i;
+		part->memory = kmalloc(ALLOC_SIZE, GFP_KERNEL);
+		if (!part->memory) {
+			LCERR();
+			for (j = 0; j < i; j++) {
+				part = arr->parts + j;
+				kfree(part->memory);
+			}
+			goto bad_alloc_parts_memory;
+		}
+	}
+	return arr;
+
+bad_alloc_parts_memory:
+	kfree(arr->parts);
+bad_alloc_parts:
+	kfree(arr);
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+static void kill_arr(struct arr *arr)
+{
+	size_t i;
+	for (i = 0; i < nr_parts(arr); i++) {
+		struct part *part = arr->parts + i;
+		kfree(part->memory);
+	}
+	kfree(arr->parts);
+	kfree(arr);
+}
+
+static void *arr_at(struct arr *arr, size_t i)
+{
+	size_t n = nr_elems_in_part(arr);
+	size_t j = i / n;
+	size_t k = i % n;
+	struct part *part = arr->parts + j;
+	return part->memory + (arr->elemsize * k);
+}
+
+static struct dm_io_client *lc_io_client;
+
+struct safe_io {
+	struct work_struct work;
+	int err;
+	unsigned long err_bits;
+	struct dm_io_request *io_req;
+	struct dm_io_region *region;
+	unsigned num_regions;
+};
+static struct workqueue_struct *safe_io_wq;
+
+static void safe_io_proc(struct work_struct *work)
+{
+	struct safe_io *io = container_of(work, struct safe_io, work);
+	io->err_bits = 0;
+	io->err = dm_io(io->io_req, io->num_regions, io->region, &io->err_bits);
+}
+
+/*
+ * dm_io wrapper.
+ * @thread run operation this in other thread to avoid deadlock.
+ */
+static int dm_safe_io_internal(
+		struct dm_io_request *io_req,
+		struct dm_io_region *region, unsigned num_regions,
+		unsigned long *err_bits, bool thread, int lineno)
+{
+	int err;
+	dev_t dev;
+
+	if (thread) {
+		struct safe_io io = {
+			.io_req = io_req,
+			.region = region,
+			.num_regions = num_regions,
+		};
+
+		INIT_WORK_ONSTACK(&io.work, safe_io_proc);
+
+		queue_work(safe_io_wq, &io.work);
+		flush_work(&io.work);
+
+		err = io.err;
+		*err_bits = io.err_bits;
+	} else {
+		err = dm_io(io_req, num_regions, region, err_bits);
+	}
+
+	dev = region->bdev->bd_dev;
+	if (err || *err_bits) {
+		LCERR("L%d err(%d, %lu), rw(%d), sector(%lu), dev(%u:%u)",
+		      lineno, err, *err_bits,
+		      io_req->bi_rw, region->sector,
+		      MAJOR(dev), MINOR(dev));
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+unsigned long err_bits_ignored;
+#define dm_safe_io(io_req, region, num_regions, thread) \
+	dm_safe_io_internal((io_req), (region), (num_regions), \
+			    &err_bits_ignored, (thread), __LINE__)
+
+static void dm_safe_io_retry_internal(
+		struct dm_io_request *io_req,
+		struct dm_io_region *region, unsigned num_regions,
+		bool thread, int lineno)
+{
+	int err, count = 0;
+	unsigned long err_bits;
+	dev_t dev;
+
+retry_io:
+	err_bits = 0;
+	err = dm_safe_io_internal(io_req, region, num_regions, &err_bits,
+				  thread, lineno);
+
+	dev = region->bdev->bd_dev;
+	if (err || err_bits) {
+		count++;
+		LCWARN("L%d count(%d)", lineno, count);
+
+		schedule_timeout_interruptible(msecs_to_jiffies(1000));
+		goto retry_io;
+	}
+
+	if (count) {
+		LCINFO("L%d rw(%d), sector(%lu), dev(%u:%u)",
+		       lineno,
+		       io_req->bi_rw, region->sector,
+		       MAJOR(dev), MINOR(dev));
+	}
+}
+#define dm_safe_io_retry(io_req, region, num_regions, thread) \
+	dm_safe_io_retry_internal((io_req), (region), \
+				  (num_regions), (thread), __LINE__)
+
+/*
+ * device_id = 0
+ * is reserved for invalid cache block.
+ */
+typedef u8 device_id;
+
+struct lc_device {
+	struct kobject kobj;
+
+	u8 migrate_threshold;
+
+	struct lc_cache *cache;
+
+	device_id id;
+	struct dm_dev *device;
+
+	atomic64_t nr_dirty_caches;
+
+	struct mapped_device *md;
+};
+
+/*
+ * cache_id = 0
+ * is reserved for no cache.
+ */
+typedef u8 cache_id;
+
+/*
+ * dm-lc can't manange
+ * more than (1 << 8)
+ * virtual devices and cache devices.
+ */
+#define LC_NR_SLOTS ((1 << 8) - 1)
+
+cache_id cache_id_ptr;
+
+struct lc_cache *lc_caches[LC_NR_SLOTS];
+
+struct lc_device *lc_devices[LC_NR_SLOTS];
+
+/*
+ * Type for cache line index.
+ *
+ * dm-lc can supoort a cache device
+ * with size less than 4KB * (1 << 32)
+ * that is 16TB.
+ */
+typedef u32 cache_nr;
+
+/*
+ * Accounts for a 4KB cache line
+ * which consists of 8 sectors
+ * that is managed by dirty bit for each.
+ */
+struct metablock {
+	sector_t sector;
+
+	cache_nr idx; /* Const */
+
+	struct hlist_node ht_list;
+
+	/*
+	 * 8 bit flag for dirtiness
+	 * for each sector in cache line.
+	 *
+	 * In the current implementation,
+	 * we recover only dirty caches
+	 * in crash recovery.
+	 *
+	 * Adding recover flag
+	 * to recover clean caches
+	 * badly complicates the code.
+	 * All in all, nearly meaningless
+	 * because caches are likely to be dirty.
+	 */
+	u8 dirty_bits;
+
+	device_id device_id;
+};
+
+static void inc_nr_dirty_caches(device_id id)
+{
+	struct lc_device *o = lc_devices[id];
+	BUG_ON(!o);
+	atomic64_inc(&o->nr_dirty_caches);
+}
+
+static void dec_nr_dirty_caches(device_id id)
+{
+	struct lc_device *o = lc_devices[id];
+	BUG_ON(!o);
+	atomic64_dec(&o->nr_dirty_caches);
+}
+
+/*
+ * On-disk metablock
+ */
+struct metablock_device {
+	sector_t sector;
+	device_id device_id;
+
+	u8 dirty_bits;
+
+	u32 lap;
+} __packed;
+
+struct writebuffer {
+	void *data;
+	struct completion done;
+};
+
+#define SZ_MAX (~(size_t)0)
+struct segment_header {
+	struct metablock mb_array[NR_CACHES_INSEG];
+
+	/*
+	 * ID uniformly increases.
+	 * ID 0 is used to tell that the segment is invalid
+	 * and valid id >= 1.
+	 */
+	size_t global_id;
+
+	/*
+	 * Segment can be flushed half-done.
+	 * length is the number of
+	 * metablocks that must be counted in
+	 * in resuming.
+	 */
+	u8 length;
+
+	cache_nr start_idx; /* Const */
+	sector_t start_sector; /* Const */
+
+	struct list_head migrate_list;
+
+	struct completion flush_done;
+
+	struct completion migrate_done;
+
+	spinlock_t lock;
+
+	atomic_t nr_inflight_ios;
+};
+
+#define lockseg(seg, flags) spin_lock_irqsave(&(seg)->lock, flags)
+#define unlockseg(seg, flags) spin_unlock_irqrestore(&(seg)->lock, flags)
+
+static void cleanup_mb_if_dirty(struct segment_header *seg,
+				struct metablock *mb)
+{
+	unsigned long flags;
+
+	bool b = false;
+	lockseg(seg, flags);
+	if (mb->dirty_bits) {
+		mb->dirty_bits = 0;
+		b = true;
+	}
+	unlockseg(seg, flags);
+
+	if (b)
+		dec_nr_dirty_caches(mb->device_id);
+}
+
+static u8 atomic_read_mb_dirtiness(struct segment_header *seg,
+				   struct metablock *mb)
+{
+	unsigned long flags;
+	u8 r;
+
+	lockseg(seg, flags);
+	r = mb->dirty_bits;
+	unlockseg(seg, flags);
+
+	return r;
+}
+
+/*
+ * On-disk segment header.
+ * At most 4KB in total.
+ */
+struct segment_header_device {
+	/* --- At most512 byte for atomicity. --- */
+	size_t global_id;
+	u8 length;
+	u32 lap; /* Initially 0. 1 for the first lap. */
+	/* -------------------------------------- */
+	/* This array must locate at the tail */
+	struct metablock_device mbarr[NR_CACHES_INSEG];
+} __packed;
+
+struct lookup_key {
+	device_id device_id;
+	sector_t sector;
+};
+
+enum STATFLAG {
+	STAT_WRITE = 0,
+	STAT_HIT,
+	STAT_ON_BUFFER,
+	STAT_FULLSIZE,
+};
+#define STATLEN (1 << 4)
+
+struct ht_head {
+	struct hlist_head ht_list;
+};
+
+struct lc_cache {
+	struct kobject kobj;
+
+	cache_id id;
+	struct dm_dev *device;
+	struct mutex io_lock;
+	cache_nr nr_caches; /* Const */
+	size_t nr_segments; /* Const */
+	struct arr *segment_header_array;
+
+	/*
+	 * Chained hashtable
+	 */
+	struct arr *htable;
+	size_t htsize;
+	struct ht_head *null_head;
+
+	cache_nr cursor; /* Index that has written */
+	struct segment_header *current_seg;
+	struct writebuffer *current_wb;
+	struct writebuffer *wb_pool;
+
+	size_t last_migrated_segment_id;
+	size_t last_flushed_segment_id;
+	size_t reserving_segment_id;
+
+	/*
+	 * For Flush daemon
+	 */
+	spinlock_t flush_queue_lock;
+	struct list_head flush_queue;
+	struct work_struct flush_work;
+	wait_queue_head_t flush_wait_queue;
+	struct workqueue_struct *flush_wq;
+
+	/*
+	 * For deferred ack for barriers.
+	 */
+	struct timer_list barrier_deadline_timer;
+	struct bio_list barrier_ios;
+	unsigned long barrier_deadline_ms;
+	struct work_struct barrier_deadline_work;
+
+	/*
+	 * For Migration daemon
+	 */
+	bool allow_migrate;
+	bool force_migrate;
+	struct workqueue_struct *migrate_wq;
+	struct work_struct migrate_work;
+
+	/*
+	 * For migration
+	 */
+	wait_queue_head_t migrate_wait_queue;
+	atomic_t migrate_fail_count;
+	atomic_t migrate_io_count;
+	bool migrate_dests[LC_NR_SLOTS];
+	size_t nr_max_batched_migration;
+	size_t nr_cur_batched_migration;
+	struct list_head migrate_list;
+	u8 *dirtiness_snapshot;
+	void *migrate_buffer;
+
+	bool on_terminate;
+
+	atomic64_t stat[STATLEN];
+
+	unsigned long update_interval;
+	unsigned long commit_super_block_interval;
+	unsigned long flush_current_buffer_interval;
+};
+
+static void inc_stat(struct lc_cache *cache,
+		     int rw, bool found, bool on_buffer, bool fullsize)
+{
+	atomic64_t *v;
+
+	int i = 0;
+	if (rw)
+		i |= (1 << STAT_WRITE);
+	if (found)
+		i |= (1 << STAT_HIT);
+	if (on_buffer)
+		i |= (1 << STAT_ON_BUFFER);
+	if (fullsize)
+		i |= (1 << STAT_FULLSIZE);
+
+	v = &cache->stat[i];
+	atomic64_inc(v);
+}
+
+static void clear_stat(struct lc_cache *cache)
+{
+	int i;
+	for (i = 0; i < STATLEN; i++) {
+		atomic64_t *v = &cache->stat[i];
+		atomic64_set(v, 0);
+	}
+}
+
+static struct metablock *mb_at(struct lc_cache *cache, cache_nr idx)
+{
+	size_t seg_idx = idx / NR_CACHES_INSEG;
+	struct segment_header *seg =
+		arr_at(cache->segment_header_array, seg_idx);
+	cache_nr idx_inseg = idx % NR_CACHES_INSEG;
+	return seg->mb_array + idx_inseg;
+}
+
+static void mb_array_empty_init(struct lc_cache *cache)
+{
+	size_t i;
+	for (i = 0; i < cache->nr_caches; i++) {
+		struct metablock *mb = mb_at(cache, i);
+		INIT_HLIST_NODE(&mb->ht_list);
+
+		mb->idx = i;
+		mb->dirty_bits = 0;
+	}
+}
+
+static int __must_check ht_empty_init(struct lc_cache *cache)
+{
+	cache_nr idx;
+	size_t i;
+	size_t nr_heads;
+	struct arr *arr;
+
+	cache->htsize = cache->nr_caches;
+	nr_heads = cache->htsize + 1;
+	arr = make_arr(sizeof(struct ht_head), nr_heads);
+	if (!arr) {
+		LCERR();
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	}
+
+	cache->htable = arr;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < nr_heads; i++) {
+		struct ht_head *hd = arr_at(arr, i);
+		INIT_HLIST_HEAD(&hd->ht_list);
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Our hashtable has one special bucket called null head.
+	 * Orphan metablocks are linked to the null head.
+	 */
+	cache->null_head = arr_at(cache->htable, cache->htsize);
+
+	for (idx = 0; idx < cache->nr_caches; idx++) {
+		struct metablock *mb = mb_at(cache, idx);
+		hlist_add_head(&mb->ht_list, &cache->null_head->ht_list);
+	}
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static cache_nr ht_hash(struct lc_cache *cache, struct lookup_key *key)
+{
+	return key->sector % cache->htsize;
+}
+
+static bool mb_hit(struct metablock *mb, struct lookup_key *key)
+{
+	return (mb->sector == key->sector) && (mb->device_id == key->device_id);
+}
+
+static void ht_del(struct lc_cache *cache, struct metablock *mb)
+{
+	struct ht_head *null_head;
+
+	hlist_del(&mb->ht_list);
+
+	null_head = cache->null_head;
+	hlist_add_head(&mb->ht_list, &null_head->ht_list);
+}
+
+static void ht_register(struct lc_cache *cache, struct ht_head *head,
+			struct lookup_key *key, struct metablock *mb)
+{
+	hlist_del(&mb->ht_list);
+	hlist_add_head(&mb->ht_list, &head->ht_list);
+
+	mb->device_id = key->device_id;
+	mb->sector = key->sector;
+};
+
+static struct metablock *ht_lookup(struct lc_cache *cache,
+				   struct ht_head *head, struct lookup_key *key)
+{
+	struct metablock *mb, *found = NULL;
+	hlist_for_each_entry(mb, &head->ht_list, ht_list) {
+		if (mb_hit(mb, key)) {
+			found = mb;
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+	return found;
+}
+
+static void discard_caches_inseg(struct lc_cache *cache,
+				 struct segment_header *seg)
+{
+	u8 i;
+	for (i = 0; i < NR_CACHES_INSEG; i++) {
+		struct metablock *mb = seg->mb_array + i;
+		ht_del(cache, mb);
+	}
+}
+
+static int __must_check init_segment_header_array(struct lc_cache *cache)
+{
+	size_t segment_idx, nr_segments = cache->nr_segments;
+	cache->segment_header_array =
+		make_arr(sizeof(struct segment_header), nr_segments);
+	if (!cache->segment_header_array) {
+		LCERR();
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	}
+
+	for (segment_idx = 0; segment_idx < nr_segments; segment_idx++) {
+		struct segment_header *seg =
+			arr_at(cache->segment_header_array, segment_idx);
+		seg->start_idx = NR_CACHES_INSEG * segment_idx;
+		seg->start_sector =
+			((segment_idx % nr_segments) + 1) *
+			(1 << LC_SEGMENTSIZE_ORDER);
+
+		seg->length = 0;
+
+		atomic_set(&seg->nr_inflight_ios, 0);
+
+		spin_lock_init(&seg->lock);
+
+		INIT_LIST_HEAD(&seg->migrate_list);
+
+		init_completion(&seg->flush_done);
+		complete_all(&seg->flush_done);
+
+		init_completion(&seg->migrate_done);
+		complete_all(&seg->migrate_done);
+	}
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static struct segment_header *get_segment_header_by_id(struct lc_cache *cache,
+						       size_t segment_id)
+{
+	struct segment_header *r =
+		arr_at(cache->segment_header_array,
+		       (segment_id - 1) % cache->nr_segments);
+	return r;
+}
+
+static u32 calc_segment_lap(struct lc_cache *cache, size_t segment_id)
+{
+	u32 a = (segment_id - 1) / cache->nr_segments;
+	return a + 1;
+};
+
+static sector_t calc_mb_start_sector(struct segment_header *seg,
+				     cache_nr mb_idx)
+{
+	size_t k = 1 + (mb_idx % NR_CACHES_INSEG);
+	return seg->start_sector + (k << 3);
+}
+
+static u8 count_dirty_caches_remained(struct segment_header *seg)
+{
+	u8 i, count = 0;
+
+	struct metablock *mb;
+	for (i = 0; i < seg->length; i++) {
+		mb = seg->mb_array + i;
+		if (mb->dirty_bits)
+			count++;
+	}
+	return count;
+}
+
+static void prepare_segment_header_device(struct segment_header_device *dest,
+					  struct lc_cache *cache,
+					  struct segment_header *src)
+{
+	cache_nr i;
+	u8 left, right;
+
+	dest->global_id = src->global_id;
+	dest->length = src->length;
+	dest->lap = calc_segment_lap(cache, src->global_id);
+
+	left = src->length - 1;
+	right = (cache->cursor) % NR_CACHES_INSEG;
+	BUG_ON(left != right);
+
+	for (i = 0; i < src->length; i++) {
+		struct metablock *mb = src->mb_array + i;
+		struct metablock_device *mbdev = &dest->mbarr[i];
+		mbdev->device_id = mb->device_id;
+		mbdev->sector = mb->sector;
+		mbdev->dirty_bits = mb->dirty_bits;
+		mbdev->lap = dest->lap;
+	}
+}
+
+struct flush_context {
+	struct list_head flush_queue;
+	struct segment_header *seg;
+	struct writebuffer *wb;
+	struct bio_list barrier_ios;
+};
+
+static void flush_proc(struct work_struct *work)
+{
+	unsigned long flags;
+
+	struct lc_cache *cache =
+		container_of(work, struct lc_cache, flush_work);
+
+	while (true) {
+		struct flush_context *ctx;
+		struct segment_header *seg;
+		struct dm_io_request io_req;
+		struct dm_io_region region;
+
+		spin_lock_irqsave(&cache->flush_queue_lock, flags);
+		while (list_empty(&cache->flush_queue)) {
+			spin_unlock_irqrestore(&cache->flush_queue_lock, flags);
+			wait_event_interruptible_timeout(
+				cache->flush_wait_queue,
+				(!list_empty(&cache->flush_queue)),
+				msecs_to_jiffies(100));
+			spin_lock_irqsave(&cache->flush_queue_lock, flags);
+
+			if (cache->on_terminate)
+				return;
+		}
+
+		/* Pop the first entry */
+		ctx = list_first_entry(
+			&cache->flush_queue, struct flush_context, flush_queue);
+		list_del(&ctx->flush_queue);
+		spin_unlock_irqrestore(&cache->flush_queue_lock, flags);
+
+		seg = ctx->seg;
+
+		io_req = (struct dm_io_request) {
+			.client = lc_io_client,
+			.bi_rw = WRITE,
+			.notify.fn = NULL,
+			.mem.type = DM_IO_KMEM,
+			.mem.ptr.addr = ctx->wb->data,
+		};
+
+		region = (struct dm_io_region) {
+			.bdev = cache->device->bdev,
+			.sector = seg->start_sector,
+			.count = (seg->length + 1) << 3,
+		};
+
+		dm_safe_io_retry(&io_req, &region, 1, false);
+
+		cache->last_flushed_segment_id = seg->global_id;
+
+		complete_all(&seg->flush_done);
+
+		complete_all(&ctx->wb->done);
+
+		if (!bio_list_empty(&ctx->barrier_ios)) {
+			struct bio *bio;
+			blkdev_issue_flush(cache->device->bdev, GFP_NOIO, NULL);
+			while ((bio = bio_list_pop(&ctx->barrier_ios)))
+				bio_endio(bio, 0);
+
+			mod_timer(&cache->barrier_deadline_timer,
+				  msecs_to_jiffies(cache->barrier_deadline_ms));
+		}
+
+		kfree(ctx);
+	}
+}
+
+static void prepare_meta_writebuffer(void *writebuffer,
+				     struct lc_cache *cache,
+				     struct segment_header *seg)
+{
+	prepare_segment_header_device(writebuffer, cache, seg);
+}
+
+static void queue_flushing(struct lc_cache *cache)
+{
+	unsigned long flags;
+	struct segment_header *current_seg = cache->current_seg, *new_seg;
+	struct flush_context *ctx;
+	bool empty;
+	struct writebuffer *next_wb;
+	size_t next_id, n1 = 0, n2 = 0;
+
+	while (atomic_read(&current_seg->nr_inflight_ios)) {
+		n1++;
+		if (n1 == 100)
+			LCWARN();
+		schedule_timeout_interruptible(msecs_to_jiffies(1));
+	}
+
+	prepare_meta_writebuffer(cache->current_wb->data, cache,
+				 cache->current_seg);
+
+	INIT_COMPLETION(current_seg->migrate_done);
+	INIT_COMPLETION(current_seg->flush_done);
+
+	ctx = kmalloc_retry(sizeof(*ctx), GFP_NOIO);
+	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&ctx->flush_queue);
+	ctx->seg = current_seg;
+	ctx->wb = cache->current_wb;
+
+	bio_list_init(&ctx->barrier_ios);
+	bio_list_merge(&ctx->barrier_ios, &cache->barrier_ios);
+	bio_list_init(&cache->barrier_ios);
+
+	spin_lock_irqsave(&cache->flush_queue_lock, flags);
+	empty = list_empty(&cache->flush_queue);
+	list_add_tail(&ctx->flush_queue, &cache->flush_queue);
+	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&cache->flush_queue_lock, flags);
+	if (empty)
+		wake_up_interruptible(&cache->flush_wait_queue);
+
+	next_id = current_seg->global_id + 1;
+	new_seg = get_segment_header_by_id(cache, next_id);
+	new_seg->global_id = next_id;
+
+	while (atomic_read(&new_seg->nr_inflight_ios)) {
+		n2++;
+		if (n2 == 100)
+			LCWARN();
+		schedule_timeout_interruptible(msecs_to_jiffies(1));
+	}
+
+	BUG_ON(count_dirty_caches_remained(new_seg));
+
+	discard_caches_inseg(cache, new_seg);
+
+	/* Set the cursor to the last of the flushed segment. */
+	cache->cursor = current_seg->start_idx + (NR_CACHES_INSEG - 1);
+	new_seg->length = 0;
+
+	next_wb = cache->wb_pool + (next_id % NR_WB_POOL);
+	wait_for_completion(&next_wb->done);
+	INIT_COMPLETION(next_wb->done);
+
+	cache->current_wb = next_wb;
+
+	cache->current_seg = new_seg;
+}
+
+static void migrate_mb(struct lc_cache *cache, struct segment_header *seg,
+		       struct metablock *mb, u8 dirty_bits, bool thread)
+{
+	struct lc_device *lc = lc_devices[mb->device_id];
+
+	if (!dirty_bits)
+		return;
+
+	if (dirty_bits == 255) {
+		void *buf = kmalloc_retry(1 << 12, GFP_NOIO);
+		struct dm_io_request io_req_r, io_req_w;
+		struct dm_io_region region_r, region_w;
+
+		io_req_r = (struct dm_io_request) {
+			.client = lc_io_client,
+			.bi_rw = READ,
+			.notify.fn = NULL,
+			.mem.type = DM_IO_KMEM,
+			.mem.ptr.addr = buf,
+		};
+		region_r = (struct dm_io_region) {
+			.bdev = cache->device->bdev,
+			.sector = calc_mb_start_sector(seg, mb->idx),
+			.count = (1 << 3),
+		};
+
+		dm_safe_io_retry(&io_req_r, &region_r, 1, thread);
+
+		io_req_w = (struct dm_io_request) {
+			.client = lc_io_client,
+			.bi_rw = WRITE_FUA,
+			.notify.fn = NULL,
+			.mem.type = DM_IO_KMEM,
+			.mem.ptr.addr = buf,
+		};
+		region_w = (struct dm_io_region) {
+			.bdev = lc->device->bdev,
+			.sector = mb->sector,
+			.count = (1 << 3),
+		};
+		dm_safe_io_retry(&io_req_w, &region_w, 1, thread);
+
+		kfree(buf);
+	} else {
+		void *buf = kmalloc_retry(1 << SECTOR_SHIFT, GFP_NOIO);
+		size_t i;
+		for (i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
+			bool bit_on = dirty_bits & (1 << i);
+			struct dm_io_request io_req_r, io_req_w;
+			struct dm_io_region region_r, region_w;
+			sector_t src;
+
+			if (!bit_on)
+				continue;
+
+			io_req_r = (struct dm_io_request) {
+				.client = lc_io_client,
+				.bi_rw = READ,
+				.notify.fn = NULL,
+				.mem.type = DM_IO_KMEM,
+				.mem.ptr.addr = buf,
+			};
+			/* A tmp variable just to avoid 80 cols rule */
+			src = calc_mb_start_sector(seg, mb->idx) + i;
+			region_r = (struct dm_io_region) {
+				.bdev = cache->device->bdev,
+				.sector = src,
+				.count = 1,
+			};
+			dm_safe_io_retry(&io_req_r, &region_r, 1, thread);
+
+			io_req_w = (struct dm_io_request) {
+				.client = lc_io_client,
+				.bi_rw = WRITE,
+				.notify.fn = NULL,
+				.mem.type = DM_IO_KMEM,
+				.mem.ptr.addr = buf,
+			};
+			region_w = (struct dm_io_region) {
+				.bdev = lc->device->bdev,
+				.sector = mb->sector + 1 * i,
+				.count = 1,
+			};
+			dm_safe_io_retry(&io_req_w, &region_w, 1, thread);
+		}
+		kfree(buf);
+	}
+}
+
+static void migrate_endio(unsigned long error, void *context)
+{
+	struct lc_cache *cache = context;
+
+	if (error)
+		atomic_inc(&cache->migrate_fail_count);
+
+	if (atomic_dec_and_test(&cache->migrate_io_count))
+		wake_up_interruptible(&cache->migrate_wait_queue);
+}
+
+static void submit_migrate_io(struct lc_cache *cache,
+			      struct segment_header *seg, size_t k)
+{
+	u8 i, j;
+	size_t a = NR_CACHES_INSEG * k;
+	void *p = cache->migrate_buffer + (NR_CACHES_INSEG << 12) * k;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < seg->length; i++) {
+		struct metablock *mb = seg->mb_array + i;
+
+		struct lc_device *lc = lc_devices[mb->device_id];
+		u8 dirty_bits = *(cache->dirtiness_snapshot + (a + i));
+
+		unsigned long offset;
+		void *base, *addr;
+
+		struct dm_io_request io_req_w;
+		struct dm_io_region region_w;
+
+		if (!dirty_bits)
+			continue;
+
+		offset = i << 12;
+		base = p + offset;
+
+		if (dirty_bits == 255) {
+			addr = base;
+			io_req_w = (struct dm_io_request) {
+				.client = lc_io_client,
+				.bi_rw = WRITE,
+				.notify.fn = migrate_endio,
+				.notify.context = cache,
+				.mem.type = DM_IO_VMA,
+				.mem.ptr.vma = addr,
+			};
+			region_w = (struct dm_io_region) {
+				.bdev = lc->device->bdev,
+				.sector = mb->sector,
+				.count = (1 << 3),
+			};
+			dm_safe_io_retry(&io_req_w, &region_w, 1, false);
+		} else {
+			for (j = 0; j < 8; j++) {
+				bool b = dirty_bits & (1 << j);
+				if (!b)
+					continue;
+
+				addr = base + (j << SECTOR_SHIFT);
+				io_req_w = (struct dm_io_request) {
+					.client = lc_io_client,
+					.bi_rw = WRITE,
+					.notify.fn = migrate_endio,
+					.notify.context = cache,
+					.mem.type = DM_IO_VMA,
+					.mem.ptr.vma = addr,
+				};
+				region_w = (struct dm_io_region) {
+					.bdev = lc->device->bdev,
+					.sector = mb->sector + j,
+					.count = 1,
+				};
+				dm_safe_io_retry(
+					&io_req_w, &region_w, 1, false);
+			}
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+static void memorize_dirty_state(struct lc_cache *cache,
+				 struct segment_header *seg, size_t k,
+				 size_t *migrate_io_count)
+{
+	u8 i, j;
+	size_t a = NR_CACHES_INSEG * k;
+	void *p = cache->migrate_buffer + (NR_CACHES_INSEG << 12) * k;
+	struct metablock *mb;
+
+	struct dm_io_request io_req_r = {
+		.client = lc_io_client,
+		.bi_rw = READ,
+		.notify.fn = NULL,
+		.mem.type = DM_IO_VMA,
+		.mem.ptr.vma = p,
+	};
+	struct dm_io_region region_r = {
+		.bdev = cache->device->bdev,
+		.sector = seg->start_sector + (1 << 3),
+		.count = seg->length << 3,
+	};
+	dm_safe_io_retry(&io_req_r, &region_r, 1, false);
+
+	/*
+	 * We take snapshot of the dirtiness in the segments.
+	 * The snapshot segments
+	 * are dirtier than themselves of any future moment
+	 * and we will migrate the possible dirtiest
+	 * state of the segments
+	 * which won't lose any dirty data that was acknowledged.
+	 */
+	for (i = 0; i < seg->length; i++) {
+		mb = seg->mb_array + i;
+		*(cache->dirtiness_snapshot + (a + i)) =
+			atomic_read_mb_dirtiness(seg, mb);
+	}
+
+	for (i = 0; i < seg->length; i++) {
+		u8 dirty_bits;
+
+		mb = seg->mb_array + i;
+
+		dirty_bits = *(cache->dirtiness_snapshot + (a + i));
+
+		if (!dirty_bits)
+			continue;
+
+		*(cache->migrate_dests + mb->device_id) = true;
+
+		if (dirty_bits == 255) {
+			(*migrate_io_count)++;
+		} else {
+			for (j = 0; j < 8; j++) {
+				if (dirty_bits & (1 << j))
+					(*migrate_io_count)++;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+static void cleanup_segment(struct lc_cache *cache, struct segment_header *seg)
+{
+	u8 i;
+	for (i = 0; i < seg->length; i++) {
+		struct metablock *mb = seg->mb_array + i;
+		cleanup_mb_if_dirty(seg, mb);
+	}
+}
+
+static void migrate_linked_segments(struct lc_cache *cache)
+{
+	struct segment_header *seg;
+	u8 i;
+	size_t k, migrate_io_count = 0;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < LC_NR_SLOTS; i++)
+		*(cache->migrate_dests + i) = false;
+
+	k = 0;
+	list_for_each_entry(seg, &cache->migrate_list, migrate_list) {
+		memorize_dirty_state(cache, seg, k, &migrate_io_count);
+		k++;
+	}
+
+migrate_write:
+	atomic_set(&cache->migrate_io_count, migrate_io_count);
+	atomic_set(&cache->migrate_fail_count, 0);
+
+	k = 0;
+	list_for_each_entry(seg, &cache->migrate_list, migrate_list) {
+		submit_migrate_io(cache, seg, k);
+		k++;
+	}
+
+	wait_event_interruptible(cache->migrate_wait_queue,
+				 atomic_read(&cache->migrate_io_count) == 0);
+
+	if (atomic_read(&cache->migrate_fail_count)) {
+		LCWARN("%u writebacks failed. retry.",
+		       atomic_read(&cache->migrate_fail_count));
+		goto migrate_write;
+	}
+
+	BUG_ON(atomic_read(&cache->migrate_io_count));
+
+	list_for_each_entry(seg, &cache->migrate_list, migrate_list) {
+		cleanup_segment(cache, seg);
+	}
+
+	for (i = 1; i < LC_NR_SLOTS; i++) {
+		struct lc_device *lc;
+		bool b = *(cache->migrate_dests + i);
+		if (!b)
+			continue;
+
+		lc = lc_devices[i];
+		blkdev_issue_flush(lc->device->bdev, GFP_NOIO, NULL);
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Discarding the migrated regions
+	 * can avoid unnecessary wear amplifier in the future.
+	 *
+	 * But note that we should not discard
+	 * the metablock region because
+	 * whether or not to ensure
+	 * the discarded block returns certain value
+	 * is depends on venders
+	 * and unexpected metablock data
+	 * will craze the cache.
+	 */
+	list_for_each_entry(seg, &cache->migrate_list, migrate_list) {
+		blkdev_issue_discard(cache->device->bdev,
+				     seg->start_sector + (1 << 3),
+				     seg->length << 3,
+				     GFP_NOIO, 0);
+	}
+}
+
+static void migrate_proc(struct work_struct *work)
+{
+	struct lc_cache *cache =
+		container_of(work, struct lc_cache, migrate_work);
+
+	while (true) {
+		bool allow_migrate;
+		size_t i, nr_mig_candidates, nr_mig;
+		struct segment_header *seg, *tmp;
+
+		if (cache->on_terminate)
+			return;
+
+		/*
+		 * reserving_id > 0 means
+		 * that migration is immediate.
+		 */
+		allow_migrate = cache->reserving_segment_id ||
+				cache->allow_migrate;
+
+		if (!allow_migrate) {
+			schedule_timeout_interruptible(msecs_to_jiffies(1000));
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		nr_mig_candidates = cache->last_flushed_segment_id -
+				    cache->last_migrated_segment_id;
+
+		if (!nr_mig_candidates) {
+			schedule_timeout_interruptible(msecs_to_jiffies(1000));
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		if (cache->nr_cur_batched_migration !=
+		    cache->nr_max_batched_migration){
+			vfree(cache->migrate_buffer);
+			kfree(cache->dirtiness_snapshot);
+			cache->nr_cur_batched_migration =
+				cache->nr_max_batched_migration;
+			cache->migrate_buffer =
+				vmalloc(cache->nr_cur_batched_migration *
+					(NR_CACHES_INSEG << 12));
+			cache->dirtiness_snapshot =
+				kmalloc_retry(cache->nr_cur_batched_migration *
+					      NR_CACHES_INSEG,
+					      GFP_NOIO);
+
+			BUG_ON(!cache->migrate_buffer);
+			BUG_ON(!cache->dirtiness_snapshot);
+		}
+
+		/*
+		 * Batched Migration:
+		 * We will migrate at most nr_max_batched_migration
+		 * segments at a time.
+		 */
+		nr_mig = min(nr_mig_candidates,
+			     cache->nr_cur_batched_migration);
+
+		for (i = 1; i <= nr_mig; i++) {
+			seg = get_segment_header_by_id(
+					cache,
+					cache->last_migrated_segment_id + i);
+			list_add_tail(&seg->migrate_list, &cache->migrate_list);
+		}
+
+		migrate_linked_segments(cache);
+
+		/*
+		 * (Locking)
+		 * Only line of code changes
+		 * last_migrate_segment_id in runtime.
+		 */
+		cache->last_migrated_segment_id += nr_mig;
+
+		list_for_each_entry_safe(seg, tmp,
+					 &cache->migrate_list,
+					 migrate_list) {
+			complete_all(&seg->migrate_done);
+			list_del(&seg->migrate_list);
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+static void wait_for_migration(struct lc_cache *cache, size_t id)
+{
+	struct segment_header *seg = get_segment_header_by_id(cache, id);
+
+	cache->reserving_segment_id = id;
+	wait_for_completion(&seg->migrate_done);
+	cache->reserving_segment_id = 0;
+}
+
+struct superblock_device {
+	size_t last_migrated_segment_id;
+} __packed;
+
+static void commit_super_block(struct lc_cache *cache)
+{
+	struct superblock_device o;
+	void *buf;
+	struct dm_io_request io_req;
+	struct dm_io_region region;
+
+	o.last_migrated_segment_id = cache->last_migrated_segment_id;
+
+	buf = kmalloc_retry(1 << SECTOR_SHIFT, GFP_NOIO);
+	memcpy(buf, &o, sizeof(o));
+
+	io_req = (struct dm_io_request) {
+		.client = lc_io_client,
+		.bi_rw = WRITE_FUA,
+		.notify.fn = NULL,
+		.mem.type = DM_IO_KMEM,
+		.mem.ptr.addr = buf,
+	};
+	region = (struct dm_io_region) {
+		.bdev = cache->device->bdev,
+		.sector = 0,
+		.count = 1,
+	};
+	dm_safe_io_retry(&io_req, &region, 1, true);
+	kfree(buf);
+}
+
+static int __must_check read_superblock_device(struct superblock_device *dest,
+					       struct lc_cache *cache)
+{
+	int r = 0;
+	struct dm_io_request io_req;
+	struct dm_io_region region;
+
+	void *buf = kmalloc(1 << SECTOR_SHIFT, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!buf) {
+		LCERR();
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	}
+
+	io_req = (struct dm_io_request) {
+		.client = lc_io_client,
+		.bi_rw = READ,
+		.notify.fn = NULL,
+		.mem.type = DM_IO_KMEM,
+		.mem.ptr.addr = buf,
+	};
+	region = (struct dm_io_region) {
+		.bdev = cache->device->bdev,
+		.sector = 0,
+		.count = 1,
+	};
+	r = dm_safe_io(&io_req, &region, 1, true);
+	if (r) {
+		LCERR();
+		goto bad_io;
+	}
+	memcpy(dest, buf, sizeof(*dest));
+bad_io:
+	kfree(buf);
+	return r;
+}
+
+static sector_t calc_segment_header_start(size_t segment_idx)
+{
+	return (1 << LC_SEGMENTSIZE_ORDER) * (segment_idx + 1);
+}
+
+static int __must_check read_segment_header_device(
+		struct segment_header_device *dest,
+		struct lc_cache *cache, size_t segment_idx)
+{
+	int r = 0;
+	struct dm_io_request io_req;
+	struct dm_io_region region;
+	void *buf = kmalloc(1 << 12, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!buf) {
+		LCERR();
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	}
+
+	io_req = (struct dm_io_request) {
+		.client = lc_io_client,
+		.bi_rw = READ,
+		.notify.fn = NULL,
+		.mem.type = DM_IO_KMEM,
+		.mem.ptr.addr = buf,
+	};
+	region = (struct dm_io_region) {
+		.bdev = cache->device->bdev,
+		.sector = calc_segment_header_start(segment_idx),
+		.count = (1 << 3),
+	};
+	r = dm_safe_io(&io_req, &region, 1, false);
+	if (r) {
+		LCERR();
+		goto bad_io;
+	}
+	memcpy(dest, buf, sizeof(*dest));
+bad_io:
+	kfree(buf);
+	return r;
+}
+
+static void update_by_segment_header_device(struct lc_cache *cache,
+					    struct segment_header_device *src)
+{
+	cache_nr i;
+	struct segment_header *seg =
+		get_segment_header_by_id(cache, src->global_id);
+	seg->length = src->length;
+
+	INIT_COMPLETION(seg->migrate_done);
+
+	for (i = 0 ; i < src->length; i++) {
+		cache_nr k;
+		struct lookup_key key;
+		struct ht_head *head;
+		struct metablock *found, *mb = seg->mb_array + i;
+		struct metablock_device *mbdev = &src->mbarr[i];
+
+		if (!mbdev->dirty_bits)
+			continue;
+
+		mb->sector = mbdev->sector;
+		mb->device_id = mbdev->device_id;
+		mb->dirty_bits = mbdev->dirty_bits;
+
+		inc_nr_dirty_caches(mb->device_id);
+
+		key = (struct lookup_key) {
+			.device_id = mb->device_id,
+			.sector = mb->sector,
+		};
+
+		k = ht_hash(cache, &key);
+		head = arr_at(cache->htable, k);
+
+		found = ht_lookup(cache, head, &key);
+		if (found)
+			ht_del(cache, found);
+		ht_register(cache, head, &key, mb);
+	}
+}
+
+static bool checkup_atomicity(struct segment_header_device *header)
+{
+	u8 i;
+	for (i = 0; i < header->length; i++) {
+		struct metablock_device *o;
+		o = header->mbarr + i;
+		if (o->lap != header->lap)
+			return false;
+	}
+	return true;
+}
+
+static int __must_check recover_cache(struct lc_cache *cache)
+{
+	int r = 0;
+	struct segment_header_device *header;
+	struct segment_header *seg;
+	size_t i, j,
+	       max_id, oldest_id, last_flushed_id, init_segment_id,
+	       oldest_idx, nr_segments = cache->nr_segments;
+
+	struct superblock_device uninitialized_var(sup);
+	r = read_superblock_device(&sup, cache);
+	if (r) {
+		LCERR();
+		return r;
+	}
+
+	header = kmalloc(sizeof(*header), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!header) {
+		LCERR();
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Finding the oldest, non-zero id and its index.
+	 */
+
+	max_id = SZ_MAX;
+	oldest_id = max_id;
+	oldest_idx = 0;
+	for (i = 0; i < nr_segments; i++) {
+		r = read_segment_header_device(header, cache, i);
+		if (r) {
+			LCERR();
+			kfree(header);
+			return r;
+		}
+
+		if (header->global_id < 1)
+			continue;
+
+		if (header->global_id < oldest_id) {
+			oldest_idx = i;
+			oldest_id = header->global_id;
+		}
+	}
+
+	last_flushed_id = 0;
+
+	/*
+	 * This is an invariant.
+	 * We always start from the segment
+	 * that is right after the last_flush_id.
+	 */
+	init_segment_id = last_flushed_id + 1;
+
+	/*
+	 * If no segment was flushed
+	 * then there is nothing to recover.
+	 */
+	if (oldest_id == max_id)
+		goto setup_init_segment;
+
+	/*
+	 * What we have to do in the next loop is to
+	 * revive the segments that are
+	 * flushed but yet not migrated.
+	 */
+
+	/*
+	 * Example:
+	 * There are only 5 segments.
+	 * The segments we will consider are of id k+2 and k+3
+	 * because they are dirty but not migrated.
+	 *
+	 * id: [     k+3    ][  k+4   ][   k    ][     k+1     ][  K+2  ]
+	 *      last_flushed  init_seg  migrated  last_migrated  flushed
+	 */
+	for (i = oldest_idx; i < (nr_segments + oldest_idx); i++) {
+		j = i % nr_segments;
+		r = read_segment_header_device(header, cache, j);
+		if (r) {
+			LCERR();
+			kfree(header);
+			return r;
+		}
+
+		/*
+		 * Valid global_id > 0.
+		 * We encounter header with global_id = 0 and
+		 * we can consider
+		 * this and the followings are all invalid.
+		 */
+		if (header->global_id <= last_flushed_id)
+			break;
+
+		if (!checkup_atomicity(header))
+			break;
+
+		/*
+		 * Now the header is proven valid.
+		 */
+
+		last_flushed_id = header->global_id;
+		init_segment_id = last_flushed_id + 1;
+
+		/*
+		 * If the data is already on the backing store,
+		 * we ignore the segment.
+		 */
+		if (header->global_id <= sup.last_migrated_segment_id)
+			continue;
+
+		update_by_segment_header_device(cache, header);
+	}
+
+setup_init_segment:
+	kfree(header);
+
+	seg = get_segment_header_by_id(cache, init_segment_id);
+	seg->global_id = init_segment_id;
+	atomic_set(&seg->nr_inflight_ios, 0);
+
+	cache->last_flushed_segment_id = seg->global_id - 1;
+
+	cache->last_migrated_segment_id =
+		cache->last_flushed_segment_id > cache->nr_segments ?
+		cache->last_flushed_segment_id - cache->nr_segments : 0;
+
+	if (sup.last_migrated_segment_id > cache->last_migrated_segment_id)
+		cache->last_migrated_segment_id = sup.last_migrated_segment_id;
+
+	wait_for_migration(cache, seg->global_id);
+
+	discard_caches_inseg(cache, seg);
+
+	/*
+	 * cursor is set to the first element of the segment.
+	 * This means that we will not use the element.
+	 */
+	cache->cursor = seg->start_idx;
+	seg->length = 1;
+
+	cache->current_seg = seg;
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static sector_t dm_devsize(struct dm_dev *dev)
+{
+	return i_size_read(dev->bdev->bd_inode) >> SECTOR_SHIFT;
+}
+
+static size_t calc_nr_segments(struct dm_dev *dev)
+{
+	sector_t devsize = dm_devsize(dev);
+
+	/*
+	 * Disk format:
+	 * superblock(1MB) [segment(1MB)]+
+	 * We reserve the first segment (1MB) as the superblock.
+	 *
+	 * segment(1MB):
+	 * segment_header_device(4KB) metablock_device(4KB)*NR_CACHES_INSEG
+	 */
+	return devsize / (1 << LC_SEGMENTSIZE_ORDER) - 1;
+}
+
+struct format_segmd_context {
+	atomic64_t count;
+	int err;
+};
+
+static void format_segmd_endio(unsigned long error, void *__context)
+{
+	struct format_segmd_context *context = __context;
+	if (error)
+		context->err = 1;
+	atomic64_dec(&context->count);
+}
+
+static int __must_check format_cache_device(struct dm_dev *dev)
+{
+	size_t i, nr_segments = calc_nr_segments(dev);
+	struct format_segmd_context context;
+	struct dm_io_request io_req_sup;
+	struct dm_io_region region_sup;
+	void *buf;
+
+	int r = 0;
+
+	buf = kzalloc(1 << SECTOR_SHIFT, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!buf) {
+		LCERR();
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	}
+
+	io_req_sup = (struct dm_io_request) {
+		.client = lc_io_client,
+		.bi_rw = WRITE_FUA,
+		.notify.fn = NULL,
+		.mem.type = DM_IO_KMEM,
+		.mem.ptr.addr = buf,
+	};
+	region_sup = (struct dm_io_region) {
+		.bdev = dev->bdev,
+		.sector = 0,
+		.count = 1,
+	};
+	r = dm_safe_io(&io_req_sup, &region_sup, 1, false);
+	kfree(buf);
+
+	if (r) {
+		LCERR();
+		return r;
+	}
+
+	atomic64_set(&context.count, nr_segments);
+	context.err = 0;
+
+	buf = kzalloc(1 << 12, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!buf) {
+		LCERR();
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	}
+
+	for (i = 0; i < nr_segments; i++) {
+		struct dm_io_request io_req_seg = {
+			.client = lc_io_client,
+			.bi_rw = WRITE,
+			.notify.fn = format_segmd_endio,
+			.notify.context = &context,
+			.mem.type = DM_IO_KMEM,
+			.mem.ptr.addr = buf,
+		};
+		struct dm_io_region region_seg = {
+			.bdev = dev->bdev,
+			.sector = calc_segment_header_start(i),
+			.count = (1 << 3),
+		};
+		r = dm_safe_io(&io_req_seg, &region_seg, 1, false);
+		if (r) {
+			LCERR();
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+	kfree(buf);
+
+	if (r) {
+		LCERR();
+		return r;
+	}
+
+	while (atomic64_read(&context.count))
+		schedule_timeout_interruptible(msecs_to_jiffies(100));
+
+	if (context.err) {
+		LCERR();
+		return -EIO;
+	}
+
+	return blkdev_issue_flush(dev->bdev, GFP_KERNEL, NULL);
+}
+
+static bool is_on_buffer(struct lc_cache *cache, cache_nr mb_idx)
+{
+	cache_nr start = cache->current_seg->start_idx;
+	if (mb_idx < start)
+		return false;
+
+	if (mb_idx >= (start + NR_CACHES_INSEG))
+		return false;
+
+	return true;
+}
+
+static void bio_remap(struct bio *bio, struct dm_dev *dev, sector_t sector)
+{
+	bio->bi_bdev = dev->bdev;
+	bio->bi_sector = sector;
+}
+
+static sector_t calc_cache_alignment(struct lc_cache *cache,
+				     sector_t bio_sector)
+{
+	return (bio_sector / (1 << 3)) * (1 << 3);
+}
+
+static void migrate_buffered_mb(struct lc_cache *cache,
+				struct metablock *mb, u8 dirty_bits)
+{
+	u8 i, k = 1 + (mb->idx % NR_CACHES_INSEG);
+	sector_t offset = (k << 3);
+
+	void *buf = kmalloc_retry(1 << SECTOR_SHIFT, GFP_NOIO);
+	for (i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
+		struct lc_device *lc;
+		struct dm_io_request io_req;
+		struct dm_io_region region;
+		void *src;
+		sector_t dest;
+
+		bool bit_on = dirty_bits & (1 << i);
+		if (!bit_on)
+			continue;
+
+		src = cache->current_wb->data +
+		      ((offset + i) << SECTOR_SHIFT);
+		memcpy(buf, src, 1 << SECTOR_SHIFT);
+
+		io_req = (struct dm_io_request) {
+			.client = lc_io_client,
+			.bi_rw = WRITE_FUA,
+			.notify.fn = NULL,
+			.mem.type = DM_IO_KMEM,
+			.mem.ptr.addr = buf,
+		};
+
+		lc = lc_devices[mb->device_id];
+		dest = mb->sector + 1 * i;
+		region = (struct dm_io_region) {
+			.bdev = lc->device->bdev,
+			.sector = dest,
+			.count = 1,
+		};
+
+		dm_safe_io_retry(&io_req, &region, 1, true);
+	}
+	kfree(buf);
+}
+
+static void queue_current_buffer(struct lc_cache *cache)
+{
+	/*
+	 * Before we get the next segment
+	 * we must wait until the segment is all clean.
+	 * A clean segment doesn't have
+	 * log to flush and dirties to migrate.
+	 */
+	size_t next_id = cache->current_seg->global_id + 1;
+
+	struct segment_header *next_seg =
+		get_segment_header_by_id(cache, next_id);
+
+	wait_for_completion(&next_seg->flush_done);
+
+	wait_for_migration(cache, next_id);
+
+	queue_flushing(cache);
+}
+
+static void flush_current_buffer_sync(struct lc_cache *cache)
+{
+	struct segment_header *old_seg;
+
+	mutex_lock(&cache->io_lock);
+	old_seg = cache->current_seg;
+
+	queue_current_buffer(cache);
+	cache->cursor = (cache->cursor + 1) % cache->nr_caches;
+	cache->current_seg->length = 1;
+	mutex_unlock(&cache->io_lock);
+
+	wait_for_completion(&old_seg->flush_done);
+}
+
+static void flush_barrier_ios(struct work_struct *work)
+{
+	struct lc_cache *cache =
+		container_of(work, struct lc_cache,
+			     barrier_deadline_work);
+
+	if (bio_list_empty(&cache->barrier_ios))
+		return;
+
+	flush_current_buffer_sync(cache);
+}
+
+static void barrier_deadline_proc(unsigned long data)
+{
+	struct lc_cache *cache = (struct lc_cache *) data;
+	schedule_work(&cache->barrier_deadline_work);
+}
+
+static void queue_barrier_io(struct lc_cache *cache, struct bio *bio)
+{
+	mutex_lock(&cache->io_lock);
+	bio_list_add(&cache->barrier_ios, bio);
+	mutex_unlock(&cache->io_lock);
+
+	if (!timer_pending(&cache->barrier_deadline_timer))
+		mod_timer(&cache->barrier_deadline_timer,
+			  msecs_to_jiffies(cache->barrier_deadline_ms));
+}
+
+struct per_bio_data {
+	void *ptr;
+};
+
+static int lc_map(struct dm_target *ti, struct bio *bio)
+{
+	unsigned long flags;
+	struct lc_cache *cache;
+	struct segment_header *uninitialized_var(seg);
+	struct metablock *mb, *new_mb;
+	struct per_bio_data *map_context;
+	sector_t bio_count, bio_offset, s;
+	bool bio_fullsize, found, on_buffer,
+	     refresh_segment, b;
+	int rw;
+	struct lookup_key key;
+	struct ht_head *head;
+	cache_nr update_mb_idx, idx_inseg, k;
+	size_t start;
+	void *data;
+
+	struct lc_device *lc = ti->private;
+	struct dm_dev *orig = lc->device;
+
+	if (!lc->cache) {
+		bio_remap(bio, orig, bio->bi_sector);
+		return DM_MAPIO_REMAPPED;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * We only discard only the backing store because
+	 * blocks on cache device are unlikely to be discarded.
+	 *
+	 * Discarding blocks is likely to be operated
+	 * long after writing;
+	 * the block is likely to be migrated before.
+	 * Moreover,
+	 * we discard the segment at the end of migration
+	 * and that's enough for discarding blocks.
+	 */
+	if (bio->bi_rw & REQ_DISCARD) {
+		bio_remap(bio, orig, bio->bi_sector);
+		return DM_MAPIO_REMAPPED;
+	}
+
+	cache = lc->cache;
+
+	if (bio->bi_rw & REQ_FLUSH) {
+		BUG_ON(bio->bi_size);
+		queue_barrier_io(cache, bio);
+		return DM_MAPIO_SUBMITTED;
+	}
+
+	map_context = dm_per_bio_data(bio, ti->per_bio_data_size);
+	map_context->ptr = NULL;
+
+	bio_count = bio->bi_size >> SECTOR_SHIFT;
+	bio_fullsize = (bio_count == (1 << 3));
+	bio_offset = bio->bi_sector % (1 << 3);
+
+	rw = bio_data_dir(bio);
+
+	key = (struct lookup_key) {
+		.sector = calc_cache_alignment(cache, bio->bi_sector),
+		.device_id = lc->id,
+	};
+
+	k = ht_hash(cache, &key);
+	head = arr_at(cache->htable, k);
+
+	mutex_lock(&cache->io_lock);
+	mb = ht_lookup(cache, head, &key);
+	if (mb) {
+		seg = ((void *) mb) - (mb->idx % NR_CACHES_INSEG) *
+				      sizeof(struct metablock);
+		atomic_inc(&seg->nr_inflight_ios);
+	}
+
+	found = (mb != NULL);
+	on_buffer = false;
+	if (found)
+		on_buffer = is_on_buffer(cache, mb->idx);
+
+	inc_stat(cache, rw, found, on_buffer, bio_fullsize);
+
+	if (!rw) {
+		u8 dirty_bits;
+
+		mutex_unlock(&cache->io_lock);
+
+		if (!found) {
+			bio_remap(bio, orig, bio->bi_sector);
+			return DM_MAPIO_REMAPPED;
+		}
+
+		dirty_bits = atomic_read_mb_dirtiness(seg, mb);
+
+		if (unlikely(on_buffer)) {
+
+			if (dirty_bits)
+				migrate_buffered_mb(cache, mb, dirty_bits);
+
+			/*
+			 * Dirtiness of a live cache:
+			 *
+			 * We can assume dirtiness of a cache only increase
+			 * when it is on the buffer, we call this cache is live.
+			 * This eases the locking because
+			 * we don't worry the dirtiness of
+			 * a live cache fluctuates.
+			 */
+
+			atomic_dec(&seg->nr_inflight_ios);
+			bio_remap(bio, orig, bio->bi_sector);
+			return DM_MAPIO_REMAPPED;
+		}
+
+		wait_for_completion(&seg->flush_done);
+		if (likely(dirty_bits == 255)) {
+			bio_remap(bio,
+				  cache->device,
+				  calc_mb_start_sector(seg, mb->idx)
+				  + bio_offset);
+			map_context->ptr = seg;
+		} else {
+
+			/*
+			 * Dirtiness of a stable cache:
+			 *
+			 * Unlike the live caches that don't
+			 * fluctuate the dirtiness,
+			 * stable caches which are not on the buffer
+			 * but on the cache device
+			 * may decrease the dirtiness by other processes
+			 * than the migrate daemon.
+			 * This works fine
+			 * because migrating the same cache twice
+			 * doesn't craze the cache concistency.
+			 */
+
+			migrate_mb(cache, seg, mb, dirty_bits, true);
+			cleanup_mb_if_dirty(seg, mb);
+
+			atomic_dec(&seg->nr_inflight_ios);
+			bio_remap(bio, orig, bio->bi_sector);
+		}
+		return DM_MAPIO_REMAPPED;
+	}
+
+	if (found) {
+
+		if (unlikely(on_buffer)) {
+			mutex_unlock(&cache->io_lock);
+
+			update_mb_idx = mb->idx;
+			goto write_on_buffer;
+		} else {
+			u8 dirty_bits = atomic_read_mb_dirtiness(seg, mb);
+
+			/*
+			 * First clean up the previous cache
+			 * and migrate the cache if needed.
+			 */
+			bool needs_cleanup_prev_cache =
+				!bio_fullsize || !(dirty_bits == 255);
+
+			if (unlikely(needs_cleanup_prev_cache)) {
+				wait_for_completion(&seg->flush_done);
+				migrate_mb(cache, seg, mb, dirty_bits, true);
+			}
+
+			/*
+			 * Fullsize dirty cache
+			 * can be discarded without migration.
+			 */
+
+			cleanup_mb_if_dirty(seg, mb);
+
+			ht_del(cache, mb);
+
+			atomic_dec(&seg->nr_inflight_ios);
+			goto write_not_found;
+		}
+	}
+
+write_not_found:
+	;
+
+	/*
+	 * If cache->cursor is 254, 509, ...
+	 * that is the last cache line in the segment.
+	 * We must flush the current segment and
+	 * get the new one.
+	 */
+	refresh_segment = !((cache->cursor + 1) % NR_CACHES_INSEG);
+
+	if (refresh_segment)
+		queue_current_buffer(cache);
+
+	cache->cursor = (cache->cursor + 1) % cache->nr_caches;
+
+	/*
+	 * update_mb_idx is the cache line index to update.
+	 */
+	update_mb_idx = cache->cursor;
+
+	seg = cache->current_seg;
+	atomic_inc(&seg->nr_inflight_ios);
+
+	new_mb = seg->mb_array + (update_mb_idx % NR_CACHES_INSEG);
+	new_mb->dirty_bits = 0;
+	ht_register(cache, head, &key, new_mb);
+	mutex_unlock(&cache->io_lock);
+
+	mb = new_mb;
+
+write_on_buffer:
+	;
+	idx_inseg = update_mb_idx % NR_CACHES_INSEG;
+	s = (idx_inseg + 1) << 3;
+
+	b = false;
+	lockseg(seg, flags);
+	if (!mb->dirty_bits) {
+		seg->length++;
+		BUG_ON(seg->length >  NR_CACHES_INSEG);
+		b = true;
+	}
+
+	if (likely(bio_fullsize)) {
+		mb->dirty_bits = 255;
+	} else {
+		u8 i;
+		u8 acc_bits = 0;
+		s += bio_offset;
+		for (i = bio_offset; i < (bio_offset+bio_count); i++)
+			acc_bits += (1 << i);
+
+		mb->dirty_bits |= acc_bits;
+	}
+
+	BUG_ON(!mb->dirty_bits);
+
+	unlockseg(seg, flags);
+
+	if (b)
+		inc_nr_dirty_caches(mb->device_id);
+
+	start = s << SECTOR_SHIFT;
+	data = bio_data(bio);
+
+	memcpy(cache->current_wb->data + start, data, bio->bi_size);
+	atomic_dec(&seg->nr_inflight_ios);
+
+	if (bio->bi_rw & REQ_FUA) {
+		queue_barrier_io(cache, bio);
+		return DM_MAPIO_SUBMITTED;
+	}
+
+	bio_endio(bio, 0);
+	return DM_MAPIO_SUBMITTED;
+}
+
+static int lc_end_io(struct dm_target *ti, struct bio *bio, int error)
+{
+	struct segment_header *seg;
+	struct per_bio_data *map_context =
+		dm_per_bio_data(bio, ti->per_bio_data_size);
+
+	if (!map_context->ptr)
+		return 0;
+
+	seg = map_context->ptr;
+	atomic_dec(&seg->nr_inflight_ios);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static ssize_t var_show(unsigned long var, char *page)
+{
+	return sprintf(page, "%lu\n", var);
+}
+
+static int var_store(unsigned long *var, const char *page)
+{
+	char *p = (char *) page;
+	int r = kstrtoul(p, 10, var);
+	if (r) {
+		LCERR();
+		return r;
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static struct kobject *devices_kobj;
+
+struct device_sysfs_entry {
+	struct attribute attr;
+	ssize_t (*show)(struct lc_device *, char *);
+	ssize_t (*store)(struct lc_device *, const char *, size_t);
+};
+
+#define to_device(attr) container_of((attr), struct device_sysfs_entry, attr)
+static ssize_t device_attr_show(struct kobject *kobj, struct attribute *attr,
+				char *page)
+{
+	struct lc_device *device =
+		container_of(kobj, struct lc_device, kobj);
+	struct device_sysfs_entry *entry = to_device(attr);
+
+	return entry->show(device, page);
+}
+
+static ssize_t device_attr_store(struct kobject *kobj, struct attribute *attr,
+				 const char *page, size_t len)
+{
+	struct lc_device *device;
+	struct device_sysfs_entry *entry = to_device(attr);
+	if (!entry->store) {
+		LCERR();
+		return -EIO;
+	}
+
+	device = container_of(kobj, struct lc_device, kobj);
+	return entry->store(device, page, len);
+}
+
+static cache_id cache_id_of(struct lc_device *device)
+{
+	cache_id id;
+	if (!device->cache)
+		id = 0;
+	else
+		id = device->cache->id;
+	return id;
+}
+
+static ssize_t cache_id_show(struct lc_device *device, char *page)
+{
+	return var_show(cache_id_of(device), (page));
+}
+
+static struct device_sysfs_entry cache_id_entry = {
+	.attr = { .name = "cache_id", .mode = S_IRUGO },
+	.show = cache_id_show,
+};
+
+static ssize_t dev_show(struct lc_device *device, char *page)
+{
+	return sprintf(page, "%s\n", dm_device_name(device->md));
+}
+
+static struct device_sysfs_entry dev_entry = {
+	.attr = { .name = "dev", .mode = S_IRUGO },
+	.show = dev_show,
+};
+
+static ssize_t migrate_threshold_show(struct lc_device *device, char *page)
+{
+	return var_show(device->migrate_threshold, (page));
+}
+
+static ssize_t migrate_threshold_store(struct lc_device *device,
+				       const char *page, size_t count)
+{
+	unsigned long x;
+	int r = var_store(&x, page);
+	if (r) {
+		LCERR();
+		return r;
+	}
+	if (x < 0 || x > 100) {
+		LCERR();
+		return -EINVAL;
+	}
+	device->migrate_threshold = x;
+	return count;
+}
+
+static struct device_sysfs_entry migrate_threshold_entry = {
+	.attr = { .name = "migrate_threshold", .mode = S_IRUGO | S_IWUSR },
+	.show = migrate_threshold_show,
+	.store = migrate_threshold_store,
+};
+
+static ssize_t nr_dirty_caches_show(struct lc_device *device, char *page)
+{
+	unsigned long val = atomic64_read(&device->nr_dirty_caches);
+	return var_show(val, page);
+}
+
+static struct device_sysfs_entry nr_dirty_caches_entry = {
+	.attr = { .name = "nr_dirty_caches", .mode = S_IRUGO },
+	.show = nr_dirty_caches_show,
+};
+
+static struct attribute *device_default_attrs[] = {
+	&cache_id_entry.attr,
+	&dev_entry.attr,
+	&migrate_threshold_entry.attr,
+	&nr_dirty_caches_entry.attr,
+	NULL,
+};
+
+static const struct sysfs_ops device_sysfs_ops = {
+	.show = device_attr_show,
+	.store = device_attr_store,
+};
+
+static void device_release(struct kobject *kobj) { return; }
+
+static struct kobj_type device_ktype = {
+	.sysfs_ops = &device_sysfs_ops,
+	.default_attrs = device_default_attrs,
+	.release = device_release,
+};
+
+/*
+ * <device-id> <path> <cache-id>
+ */
+static int lc_ctr(struct dm_target *ti, unsigned int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	struct lc_device *lc;
+	unsigned device_id, cache_id;
+	struct dm_dev *dev;
+
+	int r = dm_set_target_max_io_len(ti, (1 << 3));
+	if (r) {
+		LCERR();
+		return r;
+	}
+
+	lc = kzalloc(sizeof(*lc), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!lc) {
+		LCERR();
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * EMC's textbook on storage system says
+	 * storage should keep its disk util less than 70%.
+	 */
+	lc->migrate_threshold = 70;
+
+	atomic64_set(&lc->nr_dirty_caches, 0);
+
+	if (sscanf(argv[0], "%u", &device_id) != 1) {
+		LCERR();
+		r = -EINVAL;
+		goto bad_device_id;
+	}
+	lc->id = device_id;
+
+	if (dm_get_device(ti, argv[1], dm_table_get_mode(ti->table), &dev)) {
+		LCERR();
+		r = -EINVAL;
+		goto bad_get_device;
+	}
+	lc->device = dev;
+
+	lc->cache = NULL;
+	if (sscanf(argv[2], "%u", &cache_id) != 1) {
+		LCERR();
+		r = -EINVAL;
+		goto bad_cache_id;
+	}
+	if (cache_id) {
+		struct lc_cache *cache = lc_caches[cache_id];
+		if (!cache) {
+			LCERR("cache is not set for id(%u)",
+			      cache_id);
+			goto bad_no_cache;
+		}
+		lc->cache = lc_caches[cache_id];
+	}
+
+	lc_devices[lc->id] = lc;
+	ti->private = lc;
+
+	ti->per_bio_data_size = sizeof(struct per_bio_data);
+
+	ti->num_flush_bios = 1;
+	ti->num_discard_bios = 1;
+
+	ti->discard_zeroes_data_unsupported = true;
+
+	/*
+	 * /sys/module/dm_lc/devices/$id/$atribute
+	 *                              /dev # -> Note
+	 *                              /device
+	 */
+
+	/*
+	 * Note:
+	 * Reference to the mapped_device
+	 * is used to show device name (major:minor).
+	 * major:minor is used in admin scripts
+	 * to get the sysfs node of a lc_device.
+	 */
+	lc->md = dm_table_get_md(ti->table);
+
+	return 0;
+
+bad_no_cache:
+bad_cache_id:
+	dm_put_device(ti, lc->device);
+bad_get_device:
+bad_device_id:
+	kfree(lc);
+	return r;
+}
+
+static void lc_dtr(struct dm_target *ti)
+{
+	struct lc_device *lc = ti->private;
+	dm_put_device(ti, lc->device);
+	ti->private = NULL;
+	kfree(lc);
+}
+
+struct kobject *get_bdev_kobject(struct block_device *bdev)
+{
+	return &disk_to_dev(bdev->bd_disk)->kobj;
+}
+
+static int lc_message(struct dm_target *ti, unsigned argc, char **argv)
+{
+	int r;
+	struct lc_device *lc = ti->private;
+	char *cmd = argv[0];
+
+	/*
+	 * We must separate
+	 * these add/remove sysfs code from .ctr
+	 * for a very complex reason.
+	 */
+	if (!strcasecmp(cmd, "add_sysfs")) {
+		struct kobject *dev_kobj;
+		r = kobject_init_and_add(&lc->kobj, &device_ktype,
+					 devices_kobj, "%u", lc->id);
+		if (r) {
+			LCERR();
+			return r;
+		}
+
+		dev_kobj = get_bdev_kobject(lc->device->bdev);
+		r = sysfs_create_link(&lc->kobj, dev_kobj, "device");
+		if (r) {
+			LCERR();
+			kobject_del(&lc->kobj);
+			kobject_put(&lc->kobj);
+			return r;
+		}
+
+		kobject_uevent(&lc->kobj, KOBJ_ADD);
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	if (!strcasecmp(cmd, "remove_sysfs")) {
+		kobject_uevent(&lc->kobj, KOBJ_REMOVE);
+
+		sysfs_remove_link(&lc->kobj, "device");
+		kobject_del(&lc->kobj);
+		kobject_put(&lc->kobj);
+
+		lc_devices[lc->id] = NULL;
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	return -EINVAL;
+}
+
+static int lc_merge(struct dm_target *ti, struct bvec_merge_data *bvm,
+		    struct bio_vec *biovec, int max_size)
+{
+	struct lc_device *lc = ti->private;
+	struct dm_dev *device = lc->device;
+	struct request_queue *q = bdev_get_queue(device->bdev);
+
+	if (!q->merge_bvec_fn)
+		return max_size;
+
+	bvm->bi_bdev = device->bdev;
+	return min(max_size, q->merge_bvec_fn(q, bvm, biovec));
+}
+
+static int lc_iterate_devices(struct dm_target *ti,
+			      iterate_devices_callout_fn fn, void *data)
+{
+	struct lc_device *lc = ti->private;
+	struct dm_dev *orig = lc->device;
+	sector_t start = 0;
+	sector_t len = dm_devsize(orig);
+	return fn(ti, orig, start, len, data);
+}
+
+static void lc_io_hints(struct dm_target *ti, struct queue_limits *limits)
+{
+	blk_limits_io_min(limits, 512);
+	blk_limits_io_opt(limits, 4096);
+}
+
+static void lc_status(struct dm_target *ti, status_type_t type,
+		      unsigned flags, char *result, unsigned maxlen)
+{
+	unsigned int sz = 0;
+	struct lc_device *lc = ti->private;
+
+	switch (type) {
+	case STATUSTYPE_INFO:
+		result[0] = '\0';
+		break;
+
+	case STATUSTYPE_TABLE:
+		DMEMIT("%d %s %d", lc->id, lc->device->name, cache_id_of(lc));
+		break;
+	}
+}
+
+static struct target_type lc_target = {
+	.name = "lc",
+	.version = {1, 0, 0},
+	.module = THIS_MODULE,
+	.map = lc_map,
+	.ctr = lc_ctr,
+	.dtr = lc_dtr,
+	.end_io = lc_end_io,
+	.merge = lc_merge,
+	.message = lc_message,
+	.status = lc_status,
+	.io_hints = lc_io_hints,
+	.iterate_devices = lc_iterate_devices,
+};
+
+static int lc_mgr_map(struct dm_target *ti, struct bio *bio)
+{
+	bio_endio(bio, 0);
+	return DM_MAPIO_SUBMITTED;
+}
+
+static int lc_mgr_ctr(struct dm_target *ti, unsigned int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static void lc_mgr_dtr(struct dm_target *ti) { return; }
+
+static struct kobject *caches_kobj;
+
+struct cache_sysfs_entry {
+	struct attribute attr;
+	ssize_t (*show)(struct lc_cache *, char *);
+	ssize_t (*store)(struct lc_cache *, const char *, size_t);
+};
+
+#define to_cache(attr) container_of((attr), struct cache_sysfs_entry, attr)
+static ssize_t cache_attr_show(struct kobject *kobj,
+			       struct attribute *attr, char *page)
+{
+	struct lc_cache *cache =
+		container_of(kobj, struct lc_cache, kobj);
+	struct cache_sysfs_entry *entry = to_cache(attr);
+
+	return entry->show(cache, page);
+}
+
+static ssize_t cache_attr_store(struct kobject *kobj, struct attribute *attr,
+		const char *page, size_t len)
+{
+	struct lc_cache *cache;
+	struct cache_sysfs_entry *entry = to_cache(attr);
+	if (!entry->store) {
+		LCERR();
+		return -EIO;
+	}
+
+	cache = container_of(kobj, struct lc_cache, kobj);
+	return entry->store(cache, page, len);
+}
+
+static ssize_t commit_super_block_interval_show(struct lc_cache *cache,
+						char *page)
+{
+	return var_show(cache->commit_super_block_interval, (page));
+}
+
+static ssize_t commit_super_block_interval_store(struct lc_cache *cache,
+						 const char *page, size_t count)
+{
+	unsigned long x;
+	int r = var_store(&x, page);
+	if (r) {
+		LCERR();
+		return r;
+	}
+
+	cache->commit_super_block_interval = x;
+	return count;
+}
+
+static struct cache_sysfs_entry commit_super_block_interval_entry = {
+	.attr = { .name = "commit_super_block_interval",
+		  .mode = S_IRUGO | S_IWUSR },
+	.show = commit_super_block_interval_show,
+	.store = commit_super_block_interval_store,
+};
+
+static ssize_t nr_max_batched_migration_show(struct lc_cache *cache,
+					     char *page)
+{
+	return var_show(cache->nr_max_batched_migration, page);
+}
+
+static ssize_t nr_max_batched_migration_store(struct lc_cache *cache,
+					      const char *page, size_t count)
+{
+	unsigned long x;
+	int r = var_store(&x, page);
+	if (r) {
+		LCERR();
+		return r;
+	}
+	if (x < 1) {
+		LCERR();
+		return -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+	cache->nr_max_batched_migration = x;
+	return count;
+}
+
+static struct cache_sysfs_entry nr_max_batched_migration_entry = {
+	.attr = { .name = "nr_max_batched_migration",
+		  .mode = S_IRUGO | S_IWUSR },
+	.show = nr_max_batched_migration_show,
+	.store = nr_max_batched_migration_store,
+};
+
+static ssize_t allow_migrate_show(struct lc_cache *cache, char *page)
+{
+	return var_show(cache->allow_migrate, (page));
+}
+
+static ssize_t allow_migrate_store(struct lc_cache *cache,
+				   const char *page, size_t count)
+{
+	unsigned long x;
+	int r = var_store(&x, page);
+	if (r) {
+		LCERR();
+		return r;
+	}
+
+	cache->allow_migrate = x;
+	return count;
+}
+
+static struct cache_sysfs_entry allow_migrate_entry = {
+	.attr = { .name = "allow_migrate", .mode = S_IRUGO | S_IWUSR },
+	.show = allow_migrate_show,
+	.store = allow_migrate_store,
+};
+
+static ssize_t force_migrate_show(struct lc_cache *cache, char *page)
+{
+	return var_show(cache->force_migrate, page);
+}
+
+static ssize_t force_migrate_store(struct lc_cache *cache,
+				   const char *page, size_t count)
+{
+	unsigned long x;
+	int r = var_store(&x, page);
+	if (r) {
+		LCERR();
+		return r;
+	}
+
+	cache->force_migrate = x;
+	return count;
+}
+
+static struct cache_sysfs_entry force_migrate_entry = {
+	.attr = { .name = "force_migrate", .mode = S_IRUGO | S_IWUSR },
+	.show = force_migrate_show,
+	.store = force_migrate_store,
+};
+
+static ssize_t update_interval_show(struct lc_cache *cache, char *page)
+{
+	return var_show(cache->update_interval, page);
+}
+
+static ssize_t update_interval_store(struct lc_cache *cache,
+				     const char *page, size_t count)
+{
+	unsigned long x;
+	int r = var_store(&x, page);
+	if (r) {
+		LCERR();
+		return r;
+	}
+
+	cache->update_interval = x;
+	return count;
+}
+
+static struct cache_sysfs_entry update_interval_entry = {
+	.attr = { .name = "update_interval", .mode = S_IRUGO | S_IWUSR },
+	.show = update_interval_show,
+	.store = update_interval_store,
+};
+
+static ssize_t flush_current_buffer_interval_show(struct lc_cache *cache,
+						  char *page)
+{
+	return var_show(cache->flush_current_buffer_interval, page);
+}
+
+static ssize_t flush_current_buffer_interval_store(struct lc_cache *cache,
+						   const char *page,
+						   size_t count)
+{
+	unsigned long x;
+	int r = var_store(&x, page);
+	if (r) {
+		LCERR();
+		return r;
+	}
+
+	cache->flush_current_buffer_interval = x;
+	return count;
+}
+
+static struct cache_sysfs_entry flush_current_buffer_interval_entry = {
+	.attr = { .name = "flush_current_buffer_interval",
+		  .mode = S_IRUGO | S_IWUSR },
+	.show = flush_current_buffer_interval_show,
+	.store = flush_current_buffer_interval_store,
+};
+
+static ssize_t commit_super_block_show(struct lc_cache *cache, char *page)
+{
+	return var_show(0, (page));
+}
+
+static ssize_t commit_super_block_store(struct lc_cache *cache,
+					const char *page, size_t count)
+{
+	unsigned long x;
+	int r = var_store(&x, page);
+	if (r) {
+		LCERR();
+		return r;
+	}
+	if (x < 1) {
+		LCERR();
+		return -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+	mutex_lock(&cache->io_lock);
+	commit_super_block(cache);
+	mutex_unlock(&cache->io_lock);
+
+	return count;
+}
+
+static struct cache_sysfs_entry commit_super_block_entry = {
+	.attr = { .name = "commit_super_block", .mode = S_IRUGO | S_IWUSR },
+	.show = commit_super_block_show,
+	.store = commit_super_block_store,
+};
+
+static ssize_t flush_current_buffer_show(struct lc_cache *cache, char *page)
+{
+	return var_show(0, (page));
+}
+
+static ssize_t flush_current_buffer_store(struct lc_cache *cache,
+					  const char *page, size_t count)
+{
+	unsigned long x;
+	int r = var_store(&x, page);
+	if (r) {
+		LCERR();
+		return r;
+	}
+	if (x < 1) {
+		LCERR();
+		return -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+	flush_current_buffer_sync(cache);
+	return count;
+}
+
+static struct cache_sysfs_entry flush_current_buffer_entry = {
+	.attr = { .name = "flush_current_buffer", .mode = S_IRUGO | S_IWUSR },
+	.show = flush_current_buffer_show,
+	.store = flush_current_buffer_store,
+};
+
+static ssize_t last_flushed_segment_id_show(struct lc_cache *cache, char *page)
+{
+	return var_show(cache->last_flushed_segment_id, (page));
+}
+
+static struct cache_sysfs_entry last_flushed_segment_id_entry = {
+	.attr = { .name = "last_flushed_segment_id", .mode = S_IRUGO },
+	.show = last_flushed_segment_id_show,
+};
+
+static ssize_t last_migrated_segment_id_show(struct lc_cache *cache, char *page)
+{
+	return var_show(cache->last_migrated_segment_id, (page));
+}
+
+static struct cache_sysfs_entry last_migrated_segment_id_entry = {
+	.attr = { .name = "last_migrated_segment_id", .mode = S_IRUGO },
+	.show = last_migrated_segment_id_show,
+};
+
+static ssize_t barrier_deadline_ms_show(struct lc_cache *cache, char *page)
+{
+	return var_show(cache->barrier_deadline_ms, (page));
+}
+
+static ssize_t barrier_deadline_ms_store(struct lc_cache *cache,
+					 const char *page, size_t count)
+{
+	unsigned long x;
+	int r = var_store(&x, page);
+	if (r) {
+		LCERR();
+		return r;
+	}
+
+	cache->barrier_deadline_ms = x;
+	return count;
+}
+
+static struct cache_sysfs_entry barrier_deadline_ms_entry = {
+	.attr = { .name = "barrier_deadline_ms", .mode = S_IRUGO | S_IWUSR },
+	.show = barrier_deadline_ms_show,
+	.store = barrier_deadline_ms_store,
+};
+
+static struct attribute *cache_default_attrs[] = {
+	&commit_super_block_interval_entry.attr,
+	&nr_max_batched_migration_entry.attr,
+	&allow_migrate_entry.attr,
+	&commit_super_block_entry.attr,
+	&flush_current_buffer_entry.attr,
+	&flush_current_buffer_interval_entry.attr,
+	&force_migrate_entry.attr,
+	&update_interval_entry.attr,
+	&last_flushed_segment_id_entry.attr,
+	&last_migrated_segment_id_entry.attr,
+	&barrier_deadline_ms_entry.attr,
+	NULL,
+};
+
+static const struct sysfs_ops cache_sysfs_ops = {
+	.show = cache_attr_show,
+	.store = cache_attr_store,
+};
+
+static void cache_release(struct kobject *kobj) { return; }
+
+static struct kobj_type cache_ktype = {
+	.sysfs_ops = &cache_sysfs_ops,
+	.default_attrs = cache_default_attrs,
+	.release = cache_release,
+};
+
+static int __must_check init_wb_pool(struct lc_cache *cache)
+{
+	size_t i, j;
+	struct writebuffer *wb;
+
+	cache->wb_pool = kmalloc(sizeof(struct writebuffer) * NR_WB_POOL,
+				 GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!cache->wb_pool) {
+		LCERR();
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	}
+
+	for (i = 0; i < NR_WB_POOL; i++) {
+		wb = cache->wb_pool + i;
+		init_completion(&wb->done);
+		complete_all(&wb->done);
+
+		wb->data = kmalloc(
+			1 << (LC_SEGMENTSIZE_ORDER + SECTOR_SHIFT),
+			GFP_KERNEL);
+		if (!wb->data) {
+			LCERR();
+			for (j = 0; j < i; j++) {
+				wb = cache->wb_pool + j;
+				kfree(wb->data);
+			}
+			kfree(cache->wb_pool);
+			return -ENOMEM;
+		}
+	}
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static void free_wb_pool(struct lc_cache *cache)
+{
+	struct writebuffer *wb;
+	size_t i;
+	for (i = 0; i < NR_WB_POOL; i++) {
+		wb = cache->wb_pool + i;
+		kfree(wb->data);
+	}
+	kfree(cache->wb_pool);
+}
+
+static int lc_mgr_message(struct dm_target *ti, unsigned int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	char *cmd = argv[0];
+
+	/*
+	 * <path>
+	 * @path path to the cache device
+	 */
+	if (!strcasecmp(cmd, "format_cache_device")) {
+		int r;
+		struct dm_dev *dev;
+		if (dm_get_device(ti, argv[1],
+				  dm_table_get_mode(ti->table), &dev)) {
+			LCERR();
+			return -EINVAL;
+		}
+
+		r = format_cache_device(dev);
+
+		dm_put_device(ti, dev);
+		return r;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * <id>
+	 *
+	 * lc-mgr has cursor to point the
+	 * cache device to operate.
+	 */
+	if (!strcasecmp(cmd, "switch_to")) {
+		unsigned id;
+		if (sscanf(argv[1], "%u", &id) != 1) {
+			LCERR();
+			return -EINVAL;
+		}
+
+		cache_id_ptr = id;
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	if (!strcasecmp(cmd, "clear_stat")) {
+		struct lc_cache *cache = lc_caches[cache_id_ptr];
+		if (!cache) {
+			LCERR();
+			return -EINVAL;
+		}
+
+		clear_stat(cache);
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * <path>
+	 */
+	if (!strcasecmp(cmd, "resume_cache")) {
+		int r = 0;
+		struct kobject *dev_kobj;
+		struct dm_dev *dev;
+
+		struct lc_cache *cache = kzalloc(sizeof(*cache), GFP_KERNEL);
+		if (!cache) {
+			LCERR();
+			return -ENOMEM;
+		}
+
+		if (dm_get_device(ti, argv[1], dm_table_get_mode(ti->table),
+				  &dev)) {
+			LCERR();
+			r = -EINVAL;
+			goto bad_get_device;
+		}
+
+		cache->id = cache_id_ptr;
+		cache->device = dev;
+		cache->nr_segments = calc_nr_segments(cache->device);
+		cache->nr_caches = cache->nr_segments * NR_CACHES_INSEG;
+		cache->on_terminate = false;
+		cache->allow_migrate = false;
+		cache->force_migrate = false;
+		cache->reserving_segment_id = 0;
+		mutex_init(&cache->io_lock);
+
+		/*
+		 * /sys/module/dm_lc/caches/$id/$attribute
+		 *                             /device -> /sys/block/$name
+		 */
+		cache->update_interval = 1;
+		cache->commit_super_block_interval = 0;
+		cache->flush_current_buffer_interval = 0;
+		r = kobject_init_and_add(&cache->kobj, &cache_ktype,
+					 caches_kobj, "%u", cache->id);
+		if (r) {
+			LCERR();
+			goto bad_kobj_add;
+		}
+
+		dev_kobj = get_bdev_kobject(cache->device->bdev);
+		r = sysfs_create_link(&cache->kobj, dev_kobj, "device");
+		if (r) {
+			LCERR();
+			goto bad_device_lns;
+		}
+
+		kobject_uevent(&cache->kobj, KOBJ_ADD);
+
+		r = init_wb_pool(cache);
+		if (r) {
+			LCERR();
+			goto bad_init_wb_pool;
+		}
+		/*
+		 * Select arbitrary one
+		 * as the initial writebuffer.
+		 */
+		cache->current_wb = cache->wb_pool + 0;
+
+		r = init_segment_header_array(cache);
+		if (r) {
+			LCERR();
+			goto bad_alloc_segment_header_array;
+		}
+		mb_array_empty_init(cache);
+
+		r = ht_empty_init(cache);
+		if (r) {
+			LCERR();
+			goto bad_alloc_ht;
+		}
+
+		cache->migrate_buffer = vmalloc(NR_CACHES_INSEG << 12);
+		if (!cache->migrate_buffer) {
+			LCERR();
+			goto bad_alloc_migrate_buffer;
+		}
+
+		cache->dirtiness_snapshot = kmalloc(
+				NR_CACHES_INSEG,
+				GFP_KERNEL);
+		if (!cache->dirtiness_snapshot) {
+			LCERR();
+			goto bad_alloc_dirtiness_snapshot;
+		}
+
+		cache->migrate_wq = create_singlethread_workqueue("migratewq");
+		if (!cache->migrate_wq) {
+			LCERR();
+			goto bad_migratewq;
+		}
+
+		INIT_WORK(&cache->migrate_work, migrate_proc);
+		init_waitqueue_head(&cache->migrate_wait_queue);
+		INIT_LIST_HEAD(&cache->migrate_list);
+		atomic_set(&cache->migrate_fail_count, 0);
+		atomic_set(&cache->migrate_io_count, 0);
+		cache->nr_max_batched_migration = 1;
+		cache->nr_cur_batched_migration = 1;
+		queue_work(cache->migrate_wq, &cache->migrate_work);
+
+		setup_timer(&cache->barrier_deadline_timer,
+			    barrier_deadline_proc, (unsigned long) cache);
+		bio_list_init(&cache->barrier_ios);
+		/*
+		 * Deadline is 3 ms by default.
+		 * 2.5 us to process on bio
+		 * and 3 ms is enough long to process 255 bios.
+		 * If the buffer doesn't get full within 3 ms,
+		 * we can doubt write starves
+		 * by waiting formerly submitted barrier to be complete.
+		 */
+		cache->barrier_deadline_ms = 3;
+		INIT_WORK(&cache->barrier_deadline_work, flush_barrier_ios);
+
+		cache->flush_wq = create_singlethread_workqueue("flushwq");
+		if (!cache->flush_wq) {
+			LCERR();
+			goto bad_flushwq;
+		}
+		spin_lock_init(&cache->flush_queue_lock);
+		INIT_WORK(&cache->flush_work, flush_proc);
+		INIT_LIST_HEAD(&cache->flush_queue);
+		init_waitqueue_head(&cache->flush_wait_queue);
+		queue_work(cache->flush_wq, &cache->flush_work);
+
+		r = recover_cache(cache);
+		if (r) {
+			LCERR();
+			goto bad_recover;
+		}
+
+		lc_caches[cache->id] = cache;
+
+		clear_stat(cache);
+
+		return 0;
+
+bad_recover:
+		cache->on_terminate = true;
+		cancel_work_sync(&cache->flush_work);
+		destroy_workqueue(cache->flush_wq);
+bad_flushwq:
+		cache->on_terminate = true;
+		cancel_work_sync(&cache->barrier_deadline_work);
+		cancel_work_sync(&cache->migrate_work);
+		destroy_workqueue(cache->migrate_wq);
+bad_migratewq:
+		kfree(cache->dirtiness_snapshot);
+bad_alloc_dirtiness_snapshot:
+		vfree(cache->migrate_buffer);
+bad_alloc_migrate_buffer:
+		kill_arr(cache->htable);
+bad_alloc_ht:
+		kill_arr(cache->segment_header_array);
+bad_alloc_segment_header_array:
+		free_wb_pool(cache);
+bad_init_wb_pool:
+		kobject_uevent(&cache->kobj, KOBJ_REMOVE);
+		sysfs_remove_link(&cache->kobj, "device");
+bad_device_lns:
+		kobject_del(&cache->kobj);
+		kobject_put(&cache->kobj);
+bad_kobj_add:
+		dm_put_device(ti, cache->device);
+bad_get_device:
+		kfree(cache);
+		lc_caches[cache_id_ptr] = NULL;
+		return r;
+	}
+
+	if (!strcasecmp(cmd, "free_cache")) {
+		struct lc_cache *cache = lc_caches[cache_id_ptr];
+
+		cache->on_terminate = true;
+
+		cancel_work_sync(&cache->flush_work);
+		destroy_workqueue(cache->flush_wq);
+
+		cancel_work_sync(&cache->barrier_deadline_work);
+
+		cancel_work_sync(&cache->migrate_work);
+		destroy_workqueue(cache->migrate_wq);
+		kfree(cache->dirtiness_snapshot);
+		vfree(cache->migrate_buffer);
+
+		kill_arr(cache->htable);
+		kill_arr(cache->segment_header_array);
+
+		free_wb_pool(cache);
+
+		kobject_uevent(&cache->kobj, KOBJ_REMOVE);
+		sysfs_remove_link(&cache->kobj, "device");
+		kobject_del(&cache->kobj);
+		kobject_put(&cache->kobj);
+
+		dm_put_device(ti, cache->device);
+		kfree(cache);
+
+		lc_caches[cache_id_ptr] = NULL;
+
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	LCERR();
+	return -EINVAL;
+}
+
+static size_t calc_static_memory_consumption(struct lc_cache *cache)
+{
+	size_t seg = sizeof(struct segment_header) * cache->nr_segments;
+	size_t ht = sizeof(struct ht_head) * cache->htsize;
+	size_t wb_pool = NR_WB_POOL << (LC_SEGMENTSIZE_ORDER + 9);
+	size_t mig_buf = cache->nr_cur_batched_migration *
+			 (NR_CACHES_INSEG << 12);
+
+	return seg + ht + wb_pool + mig_buf;
+};
+
+static void lc_mgr_status(struct dm_target *ti, status_type_t type,
+			  unsigned flags, char *result, unsigned int maxlen)
+{
+	int i;
+	struct lc_cache *cache;
+	unsigned int sz = 0;
+
+	switch (type) {
+	case STATUSTYPE_INFO:
+		DMEMIT("\n");
+		DMEMIT("current cache_id_ptr: %u\n", cache_id_ptr);
+
+		if (cache_id_ptr == 0) {
+			DMEMIT("sizeof struct\n");
+			DMEMIT("metablock: %lu\n",
+			       sizeof(struct metablock));
+			DMEMIT("metablock_device: %lu\n",
+			       sizeof(struct metablock_device));
+			DMEMIT("segment_header: %lu\n",
+			       sizeof(struct segment_header));
+			DMEMIT("segment_header_device: %lu (<= 4096)",
+			       sizeof(struct segment_header_device));
+			break;
+		}
+
+		cache = lc_caches[cache_id_ptr];
+		if (!cache) {
+			LCERR("no cache for the cache_id_ptr %u",
+			      cache_id_ptr);
+			return;
+		}
+
+		DMEMIT("static RAM(approx.): %lu (byte)\n",
+		       calc_static_memory_consumption(cache));
+		DMEMIT("allow_migrate: %d\n", cache->allow_migrate);
+		DMEMIT("nr_segments: %lu\n", cache->nr_segments);
+		DMEMIT("last_migrated_segment_id: %lu\n",
+		       cache->last_migrated_segment_id);
+		DMEMIT("last_flushed_segment_id: %lu\n",
+		       cache->last_flushed_segment_id);
+		DMEMIT("current segment id: %lu\n",
+		       cache->current_seg->global_id);
+		DMEMIT("cursor: %u\n", cache->cursor);
+		DMEMIT("\n");
+		DMEMIT("write? hit? on_buffer? fullsize?\n");
+		for (i = 0; i < STATLEN; i++) {
+			atomic64_t *v;
+			if (i == (STATLEN-1))
+				break;
+
+			v = &cache->stat[i];
+			DMEMIT("%d %d %d %d %lu",
+				i & (1 << STAT_WRITE)      ? 1 : 0,
+				i & (1 << STAT_HIT)        ? 1 : 0,
+				i & (1 << STAT_ON_BUFFER)  ? 1 : 0,
+				i & (1 << STAT_FULLSIZE)   ? 1 : 0,
+				atomic64_read(v));
+			DMEMIT("\n");
+		}
+		break;
+
+	case STATUSTYPE_TABLE:
+		break;
+	}
+}
+
+static struct target_type lc_mgr_target = {
+	.name = "lc-mgr",
+	.version = {1, 0, 0},
+	.module = THIS_MODULE,
+	.map = lc_mgr_map,
+	.ctr = lc_mgr_ctr,
+	.dtr = lc_mgr_dtr,
+	.message = lc_mgr_message,
+	.status = lc_mgr_status,
+};
+
+static int __init lc_module_init(void)
+{
+	size_t i;
+	struct module *mod;
+	struct kobject *lc_kobj;
+	int r;
+
+	r = dm_register_target(&lc_target);
+	if (r < 0) {
+		LCERR("%d", r);
+		return r;
+	}
+
+	r = dm_register_target(&lc_mgr_target);
+	if (r < 0) {
+		LCERR("%d", r);
+		goto bad_register_mgr_target;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * /sys/module/dm_lc/devices
+	 *                  /caches
+	 */
+
+	mod = THIS_MODULE;
+	lc_kobj = &(mod->mkobj.kobj);
+
+	r = -ENOMEM;
+
+	devices_kobj = kobject_create_and_add("devices", lc_kobj);
+	if (!devices_kobj) {
+		LCERR();
+		goto bad_kobj_devices;
+	}
+
+	caches_kobj = kobject_create_and_add("caches", lc_kobj);
+	if (!caches_kobj) {
+		LCERR();
+		goto bad_kobj_caches;
+	}
+
+	safe_io_wq = alloc_workqueue("safeiowq",
+				     WQ_NON_REENTRANT | WQ_MEM_RECLAIM, 0);
+	if (!safe_io_wq) {
+		LCERR();
+		goto bad_wq;
+	}
+
+	lc_io_client = dm_io_client_create();
+	if (IS_ERR(lc_io_client)) {
+		LCERR();
+		r = PTR_ERR(lc_io_client);
+		goto bad_io_client;
+	}
+
+	cache_id_ptr = 0;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < LC_NR_SLOTS; i++)
+		lc_devices[i] = NULL;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < LC_NR_SLOTS; i++)
+		lc_caches[i] = NULL;
+
+	return 0;
+
+bad_io_client:
+	destroy_workqueue(safe_io_wq);
+bad_wq:
+	kobject_put(caches_kobj);
+bad_kobj_caches:
+	kobject_put(devices_kobj);
+bad_kobj_devices:
+	dm_unregister_target(&lc_mgr_target);
+bad_register_mgr_target:
+	dm_unregister_target(&lc_target);
+
+	return r;
+}
+
+static void __exit lc_module_exit(void)
+{
+	dm_io_client_destroy(lc_io_client);
+	destroy_workqueue(safe_io_wq);
+
+	kobject_put(caches_kobj);
+	kobject_put(devices_kobj);
+
+	dm_unregister_target(&lc_mgr_target);
+	dm_unregister_target(&lc_target);
+}
+
+module_init(lc_module_init);
+module_exit(lc_module_exit);
+
+MODULE_AUTHOR("Akira Hayakawa <ruby wktk gmail com>");
+MODULE_DESCRIPTION(DM_NAME " lc target");
+MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
-- 
1.8.3.4


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