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Re: [dm-devel] Hard lockup in ext4_finish_bio



[Adding the dm people since I believe this might be in their field as well.]

After further investigation I discovered that there was indeed a task, 
executing block_write_full_page_endio (this function is supposed to 
eventually call end_buffer_async_write which would then unblock the 
writeback flusher. Here is how its callstack is looking like: 

PID: 34220  TASK: ffff883937660810  CPU: 44  COMMAND: "kworker/u98:39"
 #0 [ffff88209d5b10b8] __schedule at ffffffff81653d5a
 #1 [ffff88209d5b1150] schedule at ffffffff816542f9
 #2 [ffff88209d5b1160] schedule_preempt_disabled at ffffffff81654686
 #3 [ffff88209d5b1180] __mutex_lock_slowpath at ffffffff816521eb
 #4 [ffff88209d5b1200] mutex_lock at ffffffff816522d1
 #5 [ffff88209d5b1220] new_read at ffffffffa0152a7e [dm_bufio]
 #6 [ffff88209d5b1280] dm_bufio_get at ffffffffa0152ba6 [dm_bufio]
 #7 [ffff88209d5b1290] dm_bm_read_try_lock at ffffffffa015c878 [dm_persistent_data]
 #8 [ffff88209d5b12e0] dm_tm_read_lock at ffffffffa015f7ad [dm_persistent_data]
 #9 [ffff88209d5b12f0] bn_read_lock at ffffffffa016281b [dm_persistent_data]
#10 [ffff88209d5b1300] ro_step at ffffffffa0162856 [dm_persistent_data]
#11 [ffff88209d5b1320] dm_btree_lookup at ffffffffa01610e4 [dm_persistent_data]
#12 [ffff88209d5b13d0] dm_thin_find_block at ffffffffa017d20c [dm_thin_pool]
#13 [ffff88209d5b1430] thin_bio_map at ffffffffa017866b [dm_thin_pool]
#14 [ffff88209d5b1540] thin_map at ffffffffa0178825 [dm_thin_pool]
#15 [ffff88209d5b1550] __map_bio at ffffffff81546a0e
#16 [ffff88209d5b1590] __clone_and_map_data_bio at ffffffff81546d81
#17 [ffff88209d5b1600] __split_and_process_bio at ffffffff815471cd
#18 [ffff88209d5b16b0] dm_request at ffffffff815473a6
#19 [ffff88209d5b16e0] generic_make_request at ffffffff812fbe0a
#20 [ffff88209d5b1710] submit_bio at ffffffff812fbeb9
#21 [ffff88209d5b1780] _submit_bh at ffffffff811d78a8
#22 [ffff88209d5b17b0] submit_bh at ffffffff811d7990
#23 [ffff88209d5b17c0] __block_write_full_page at ffffffff811da7ef
#24 [ffff88209d5b1840] block_write_full_page_endio at ffffffff811daa0b
#25 [ffff88209d5b1890] block_write_full_page at ffffffff811daa65
#26 [ffff88209d5b18a0] blkdev_writepage at ffffffff811df658
#27 [ffff88209d5b18b0] __writepage at ffffffff81144567
#28 [ffff88209d5b18d0] write_cache_pages at ffffffff811467e3
#29 [ffff88209d5b1a20] generic_writepages at ffffffff81146af1
#30 [ffff88209d5b1a80] do_writepages at ffffffff81146b40
#31 [ffff88209d5b1a90] __writeback_single_inode at ffffffff811cec79
#32 [ffff88209d5b1ae0] writeback_sb_inodes at ffffffff811cfdee
#33 [ffff88209d5b1bc0] __writeback_inodes_wb at ffffffff811d00ee
#34 [ffff88209d5b1c10] wb_writeback at ffffffff811d035b
#35 [ffff88209d5b1cc0] wb_do_writeback at ffffffff811d062c
#36 [ffff88209d5b1d60] bdi_writeback_workfn at ffffffff811d0bf8
#37 [ffff88209d5b1df0] process_one_work at ffffffff810a61e5
#38 [ffff88209d5b1e40] worker_thread at ffffffff810a848a
#39 [ffff88209d5b1ec0] kthread at ffffffff810ae48e
#40 [ffff88209d5b1f50] ret_from_fork at ffffffff816571c8

So it in turn has also blocked on dm_bufio_lock in new_read. The owner of 
this mutex turns out to be: 

PID: 31111  TASK: ffff881cbb2fb870  CPU: 2   COMMAND: "kworker/u96:0"
 #0 [ffff881fffa46dc0] crash_nmi_callback at ffffffff8106f24e
 #1 [ffff881fffa46de0] nmi_handle at ffffffff8104c152
 #2 [ffff881fffa46e70] do_nmi at ffffffff8104c3b4
 #3 [ffff881fffa46ef0] end_repeat_nmi at ffffffff81656e2e
    [exception RIP: smp_call_function_many+577]
    RIP: ffffffff810e7f81  RSP: ffff880d35b815c8  RFLAGS: 00000202
    RAX: 0000000000000017  RBX: ffffffff81142690  RCX: 0000000000000017
    RDX: ffff883fff375478  RSI: 0000000000000040  RDI: 0000000000000040
    RBP: ffff880d35b81628   R8: ffff881fffa51ec8   R9: 0000000000000000
    R10: 0000000000000000  R11: ffffffff812943f3  R12: 0000000000000000
    R13: ffff881fffa51ec0  R14: ffff881fffa51ec8  R15: 0000000000011f00
    ORIG_RAX: ffffffffffffffff  CS: 0010  SS: 0018
--- <NMI exception stack> ---
 #4 [ffff880d35b815c8] smp_call_function_many at ffffffff810e7f81
 #5 [ffff880d35b81630] on_each_cpu_mask at ffffffff810e801c
 #6 [ffff880d35b81660] drain_all_pages at ffffffff81140178
 #7 [ffff880d35b81690] __alloc_pages_nodemask at ffffffff8114310b
 #8 [ffff880d35b81810] alloc_pages_current at ffffffff81181c5e
 #9 [ffff880d35b81860] new_slab at ffffffff81188305
#10 [ffff880d35b818b0] __slab_alloc at ffffffff81189a30
#11 [ffff880d35b81990] __kmalloc at ffffffff8118a70b
#12 [ffff880d35b819e0] alloc_buffer at ffffffffa0151b66 [dm_bufio]
#13 [ffff880d35b81a20] __bufio_new at ffffffffa0152831 [dm_bufio]
#14 [ffff880d35b81a90] new_read at ffffffffa0152a93 [dm_bufio]
#15 [ffff880d35b81af0] dm_bufio_read at ffffffffa0152b89 [dm_bufio]
#16 [ffff880d35b81b00] dm_bm_read_lock at ffffffffa015cb3d [dm_persistent_data]
#17 [ffff880d35b81b80] dm_tm_read_lock at ffffffffa015f79a [dm_persistent_data]
#18 [ffff880d35b81b90] bn_read_lock at ffffffffa016281b [dm_persistent_data]
#19 [ffff880d35b81ba0] ro_step at ffffffffa0162856 [dm_persistent_data]
#20 [ffff880d35b81bc0] dm_btree_lookup at ffffffffa01610e4 [dm_persistent_data]
#21 [ffff880d35b81c70] dm_thin_find_block at ffffffffa017d20c [dm_thin_pool]
#22 [ffff880d35b81cd0] process_bio at ffffffffa017902d [dm_thin_pool]
#23 [ffff880d35b81da0] do_worker at ffffffffa017a281 [dm_thin_pool]
#24 [ffff880d35b81df0] process_one_work at ffffffff810a61e5
#25 [ffff880d35b81e40] worker_thread at ffffffff810a848a
#26 [ffff880d35b81ec0] kthread at ffffffff810ae48e
#27 [ffff880d35b81f50] ret_from_fork at ffffffff816571c8

So the whole picture to me looks like the following: 

For simplicity I will use the following nomenclature: 
t1 - kworker/u96:0
t2 - kworker/u98:39
t3 - kworker/u98:7

t1 issues drain_all_pages which generates IPI's, at the same time 
however, t2 has already started doing async write of pages 
as part of its normal operation but is blocked upon t1 completion of 
its IPI (generated from drain_all_pages). At the same time again, 
t3 is executing ext4_finish_bio, which disables interrupts, yet is 
dependant on t2 completing.  But since it has disabled interrupts, it
wont respond to t1's IPI and at this a hard lock up happens. This happens, 
since drain_all_pages calls on_each_cpu_mask with the last argument equal to 
"true" meaning "wait until the ipi handler has finished", which of course will never
happen in the described situation. 


Regards, 
Nikolay

On 10/08/2015 02:46 PM, Nikolay Borisov wrote:
> Hello, 
> 
> I've hit a rather strange hard lock up on one of my servers from the 
> page writeback path, the actual backtrace is: 
> 
> [427149.717151] ------------[ cut here ]------------
> [427149.717553] WARNING: CPU: 23 PID: 4611 at kernel/watchdog.c:245 watchdog_overflow_callback+0x98/0xc0()
> [427149.718216] Watchdog detected hard LOCKUP on cpu 23
> [427149.718292] Modules linked in:
> [427149.718723]  tcp_diag inet_diag netconsole act_police cls_basic sch_ingress xt_pkttype xt_state veth openvswitch gre 
> vxlan ip_tunnel xt_owner xt_conntrack iptable_mangle xt_nat iptable_nat nf_conntrack_ipv4 nf_defrag_ipv4 nf_nat_ipv4 nf_n
> at xt_CT nf_conntrack iptable_raw ib_ipoib rdma_ucm ib_ucm ib_uverbs ib_umad rdma_cm ib_cm iw_cm ib_addr ipv6 ib_sa ext2 
> dm_thin_pool dm_bio_prison dm_persistent_data dm_bufio dm_mirror dm_region_hash dm_log i2c_i801 lpc_ich mfd_core shpchp i
> oapic ioatdma igb i2c_algo_bit ses enclosure ipmi_devintf ipmi_si ipmi_msghandler ib_qib dca ib_mad ib_core
> [427149.725321] CPU: 23 PID: 4611 Comm: kworker/u98:7 Not tainted 3.12.47-clouder1 #1
> [427149.725690] Hardware name: Supermicro X10DRi/X10DRi, BIOS 1.1 04/14/2015
> [427149.726062] Workqueue: writeback bdi_writeback_workfn (flush-252:148)
> [427149.726564]  00000000000000f5 ffff883fff366b58 ffffffff81651631 00000000000000f5
> [427149.727212]  ffff883fff366ba8 ffff883fff366b98 ffffffff81089a6c 0000000000000000
> [427149.727860]  ffff883fd2f08000 0000000000000000 ffff883fff366ce8 0000000000000000
> [427149.728490] Call Trace:
> [427149.728845]  <NMI>  [<ffffffff81651631>] dump_stack+0x58/0x7f
> [427149.729350]  [<ffffffff81089a6c>] warn_slowpath_common+0x8c/0xc0
> [427149.729712]  [<ffffffff81089b56>] warn_slowpath_fmt+0x46/0x50
> [427149.730076]  [<ffffffff811015f8>] watchdog_overflow_callback+0x98/0xc0
> [427149.730443]  [<ffffffff81132d0c>] __perf_event_overflow+0x9c/0x250
> [427149.730810]  [<ffffffff81133664>] perf_event_overflow+0x14/0x20
> [427149.731175]  [<ffffffff81061796>] intel_pmu_handle_irq+0x1d6/0x3e0
> [427149.739656]  [<ffffffff8105b4c4>] perf_event_nmi_handler+0x34/0x60
> [427149.740027]  [<ffffffff8104c152>] nmi_handle+0xa2/0x1a0
> [427149.740389]  [<ffffffff8104c3b4>] do_nmi+0x164/0x430
> [427149.740754]  [<ffffffff81656e2e>] end_repeat_nmi+0x1a/0x1e
> [427149.741122]  [<ffffffff8113bfd7>] ? mempool_free_slab+0x17/0x20
> [427149.741492]  [<ffffffff8125be15>] ? ext4_finish_bio+0x275/0x2a0
> [427149.741854]  [<ffffffff8125be15>] ? ext4_finish_bio+0x275/0x2a0
> [427149.742216]  [<ffffffff8125be15>] ? ext4_finish_bio+0x275/0x2a0
> [427149.742579]  <<EOE>>  <IRQ>  [<ffffffff8125c2c8>] ext4_end_bio+0xc8/0x120
> [427149.743150]  [<ffffffff811dbf1d>] bio_endio+0x1d/0x40
> [427149.743516]  [<ffffffff81546781>] dec_pending+0x1c1/0x360
> [427149.743878]  [<ffffffff81546996>] clone_endio+0x76/0xa0
> [427149.744239]  [<ffffffff811dbf1d>] bio_endio+0x1d/0x40
> [427149.744599]  [<ffffffff81546781>] dec_pending+0x1c1/0x360
> [427149.744964]  [<ffffffff81546996>] clone_endio+0x76/0xa0
> [427149.745326]  [<ffffffff811dbf1d>] bio_endio+0x1d/0x40
> [427149.745686]  [<ffffffff81546781>] dec_pending+0x1c1/0x360
> [427149.746048]  [<ffffffff81546996>] clone_endio+0x76/0xa0
> [427149.746407]  [<ffffffff811dbf1d>] bio_endio+0x1d/0x40
> [427149.746773]  [<ffffffff812fad2b>] blk_update_request+0x21b/0x450
> [427149.747138]  [<ffffffff812faf87>] blk_update_bidi_request+0x27/0xb0
> [427149.747513]  [<ffffffff812fcc7f>] blk_end_bidi_request+0x2f/0x80
> [427149.748101]  [<ffffffff812fcd20>] blk_end_request+0x10/0x20
> [427149.748705]  [<ffffffff813fdc1c>] scsi_io_completion+0xbc/0x620
> [427149.749297]  [<ffffffff813f57f9>] scsi_finish_command+0xc9/0x130
> [427149.749891]  [<ffffffff813fe2e7>] scsi_softirq_done+0x147/0x170
> [427149.750491]  [<ffffffff813035ad>] blk_done_softirq+0x7d/0x90
> [427149.751089]  [<ffffffff8108ed87>] __do_softirq+0x137/0x2e0
> [427149.751694]  [<ffffffff81658a0c>] call_softirq+0x1c/0x30
> [427149.752284]  [<ffffffff8104a35d>] do_softirq+0x8d/0xc0
> [427149.752892]  [<ffffffff8108e925>] irq_exit+0x95/0xa0
> [427149.753526]  [<ffffffff8106f755>] smp_call_function_single_interrupt+0x35/0x40
> [427149.754149]  [<ffffffff8165826f>] call_function_single_interrupt+0x6f/0x80
> [427149.754750]  <EOI>  [<ffffffff813276e6>] ? memcpy+0x6/0x110
> [427149.755572]  [<ffffffff811dc6d6>] ? __bio_clone+0x26/0x70
> [427149.756179]  [<ffffffff81546db9>] __clone_and_map_data_bio+0x139/0x160
> [427149.756814]  [<ffffffff815471cd>] __split_and_process_bio+0x3ed/0x490
> [427149.757444]  [<ffffffff815473a6>] dm_request+0x136/0x1e0
> [427149.758041]  [<ffffffff812fbe0a>] generic_make_request+0xca/0x100
> [427149.758641]  [<ffffffff812fbeb9>] submit_bio+0x79/0x160
> [427149.759035]  [<ffffffff81144c3d>] ? account_page_writeback+0x2d/0x40
> [427149.759406]  [<ffffffff81144dbd>] ? __test_set_page_writeback+0x16d/0x1f0
> [427149.759781]  [<ffffffff8125b7a9>] ext4_io_submit+0x29/0x50
> [427149.760151]  [<ffffffff8125b8fb>] ext4_bio_write_page+0x12b/0x2f0
> [427149.760519]  [<ffffffff81252fe8>] mpage_submit_page+0x68/0x90
> [427149.760887]  [<ffffffff81253100>] mpage_process_page_bufs+0xf0/0x110
> [427149.761257]  [<ffffffff81254a80>] mpage_prepare_extent_to_map+0x210/0x310
> [427149.761624]  [<ffffffff8125a911>] ? ext4_writepages+0x361/0xc60
> [427149.761998]  [<ffffffff81283c09>] ? __ext4_journal_start_sb+0x79/0x110
> [427149.762362]  [<ffffffff8125a948>] ext4_writepages+0x398/0xc60
> [427149.762726]  [<ffffffff812fd358>] ? blk_finish_plug+0x18/0x50
> [427149.763089]  [<ffffffff81146b40>] do_writepages+0x20/0x40
> [427149.763454]  [<ffffffff811cec79>] __writeback_single_inode+0x49/0x2b0
> [427149.763819]  [<ffffffff810aeeef>] ? wake_up_bit+0x2f/0x40
> [427149.764182]  [<ffffffff811cfdee>] writeback_sb_inodes+0x2de/0x540
> [427149.764544]  [<ffffffff811a6e65>] ? put_super+0x25/0x50
> [427149.764903]  [<ffffffff811d00ee>] __writeback_inodes_wb+0x9e/0xd0
> [427149.765265]  [<ffffffff811d035b>] wb_writeback+0x23b/0x340
> [427149.765628]  [<ffffffff811d04f9>] wb_do_writeback+0x99/0x230
> [427149.765996]  [<ffffffff810a40f1>] ? set_worker_desc+0x81/0x90
> [427149.766364]  [<ffffffff810c7a6a>] ? dequeue_task_fair+0x36a/0x4c0
> [427149.766734]  [<ffffffff811d0bf8>] bdi_writeback_workfn+0x88/0x260
> [427149.767101]  [<ffffffff810bbb3e>] ? finish_task_switch+0x4e/0xe0
> [427149.767473]  [<ffffffff81653dac>] ? __schedule+0x2dc/0x760
> [427149.767845]  [<ffffffff810a61e5>] process_one_work+0x195/0x550
> [427149.768212]  [<ffffffff810a848a>] worker_thread+0x13a/0x430
> [427149.768575]  [<ffffffff810a8350>] ? manage_workers+0x2c0/0x2c0
> [427149.768940]  [<ffffffff810ae48e>] kthread+0xce/0xe0
> [427149.769303]  [<ffffffff810ae3c0>] ? kthread_freezable_should_stop+0x80/0x80
> [427149.769668]  [<ffffffff816571c8>] ret_from_fork+0x58/0x90
> [427149.770030]  [<ffffffff810ae3c0>] ? kthread_freezable_should_stop+0x80/0x80
> [427149.770394] ---[ end trace 76566eb23cf1b028 ]---
> 
> 
> What's not evident here is that in ext4_end_bio, the CPU has actually 
> been executing ext4_finish_bio as seen from the following 
> NMI backtrace: 
> 
> [427160.405277] NMI backtrace for cpu 23
> [427160.405279] CPU: 23 PID: 4611 Comm: kworker/u98:7 Tainted: G        W    3.12.47-clouder1 #1
> [427160.405281] Hardware name: Supermicro X10DRi/X10DRi, BIOS 1.1 04/14/2015
> [427160.405285] Workqueue: writeback bdi_writeback_workfn (flush-252:148)
> [427160.405286] task: ffff8825aa819830 ti: ffff882b19180000 task.ti: ffff882b19180000
> [427160.405290] RIP: 0010:[<ffffffff8125be13>]  [<ffffffff8125be13>] ext4_finish_bio+0x273/0x2a0 <-- Important bit
> [427160.405291] RSP: 0000:ffff883fff3639b0  EFLAGS: 00000002
> [427160.405292] RAX: ffff882b19180000 RBX: ffff883f67480a80 RCX: 0000000000000110
> [427160.405292] RDX: ffff882b19180000 RSI: 0000000000000000 RDI: ffff883f67480a80
> [427160.405293] RBP: ffff883fff363a70 R08: 0000000000014b80 R09: ffff881fff454f00
> [427160.405294] R10: ffffea00473214c0 R11: ffffffff8113bfd7 R12: ffff880826272138
> [427160.405295] R13: 0000000000000000 R14: 0000000000000000 R15: ffffea00aeaea400
> [427160.405296] FS:  0000000000000000(0000) GS:ffff883fff360000(0000) knlGS:0000000000000000
> [427160.405296] CS:  0010 DS: 0000 ES: 0000 CR0: 0000000080050033
> [427160.405297] CR2: 0000003c5b009c24 CR3: 0000000001c0b000 CR4: 00000000001407e0
> [427160.405297] Stack:
> [427160.405305]  0000000000000000 ffffffff8203f230 ffff883fff363a00 ffff882b19180000
> [427160.405312]  ffff882b19180000 ffff882b19180000 00000400018e0af8 ffff882b19180000
> [427160.405319]  ffff883f67480a80 0000000000000000 0000000000000202 00000000d219e720
> [427160.405320] Call Trace:
> [427160.405324]  <IRQ> 
> 	//SAME AS THE FIRST STACKTRACE
> [427160.405436]  <EOI> 
> 	//SAME AS THE FIRST STACKTRACE
> [427160.405540] Code: e8 a3 38 ec ff ff 75 90 9d e9 2a ff ff ff 0f 0b 0f 1f 84 00 00 00 00 00 eb f6 48 8b 85 60 ff ff ff 48 8b 95 58 ff ff ff ff 48 1c <f3> 90 49 8b 0c 24 80 e1 10 75 f5 ff 42 1c f0 41 0f ba 2c 24 04 
> 
> After sampling from several different NMI prints it turns out the CPU 
> has looped on the following bit lock acquire: 
> 
> local_irq_save(flags);
> bit_spin_lock(BH_Uptodate_Lock, &head->b_state);
> do {
>      if (bh_offset(bh) < bio_start ||
>          bh_offset(bh) + bh->b_size > bio_end) {
>          	if (buffer_async_write(bh))
>                 	under_io++;
>                 continue;
>      }
>      clear_buffer_async_write(bh);
>      if (error)
>      	buffer_io_error(bh);
> } while ((bh = bh->b_this_page) != head);
> bit_spin_unlock(BH_Uptodate_Lock, &head->b_state);
> local_irq_restore(flags);
> 
> So far everything seems to check out - the code is spinning on 
> acquiring the BH_Uptodate_Lock with interrupts disabled and 
> this causes the deadlock. Now, the pertinent question is 
> why can't it acquire the spinlock. Grepping for the users of
> BH_Uptodate_Lock it is revealed that the only other places where 
> they are used are in end_buffer_async_read and 
> end_buffer_async_write. Looking at the NMI backtraces for the 
> rest of the CPUs on the system I didn't find it in any 
> execution path. Most of the cores were in acpi_idle_enter and 
> one was in mem cgroup reclaim path. However I think those are 
> unrelated. 
> 
> Ignoring the NMI call stack, this is by far the deepest callchain
> I've ever seen, I wonder whether some sort of memory corruption has 
> happened which confuses the code into thinking the lock is 
> held. Here is the struct buffer_head:
> 
> crash> struct buffer_head ffff880826272138 -x
> 
> struct buffer_head {
>   b_state = 0x131,  
>   b_this_page = 0xffff8808262728f0, 
>   b_page = 0xffffea00aeaea400, 
>   b_blocknr = 0x36bea69, 
>   b_size = 0x400, 
>   b_data = 0xffff882baba90000 struct: page excluded: kernel virtual address: ffff882baba90000  type: "gdb_readmem_callback"
> struct: page excluded: kernel virtual address: ffff882baba90000  type: "gdb_readmem_callback"
> <Address 0xffff882baba90000 out of bounds>, 
>   b_bdev = 0xffff883fcfb6db00, 
>   b_end_io = 0x0, 
>   b_private = 0x0, 
>   b_assoc_buffers = {
>     next = 0xffff880826272180, 
>     prev = 0xffff880826272180
>   }, 
>   b_assoc_map = 0x0, 
>   b_count = {
>     counter = 0x0
>   }
> }
> 
> b_state = 0x131 = (0001 0011 0001) = BH_Uptodate, BG_Uptodate_Lock, 
> BH_Mapped and BH_Async_Write, which implies that 
> end_buffer_async_write should have been executing somewhere but 
> I do not see this.  And in any case it hasn't completed in reasonable time
> since we've hit the deadlock. At this point I'm inclined to believe 
> that some sort of hardware issue might have reared its head?
> 
> What do you guys think? 
> 
> Regards, 
> Nikolay
> 
> 
> 
> 
> 
> 
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