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Re: How to set up a DNS server(at Home)



Hi,

Just a minor additional suggestion: since this is for a home network, you probably have DNS servers supplied by your ISP.  You should configure your named server as a forwarder rather than doing your own full resolution, e.g., add

        forward only;
        forwarders {
                68.87.76.178;
                68.87.78.130;
        };

to your named.conf options section.  The values above are for Comcast in San Jose, you'll need to change them!

Take care,
Michael.

On Thu, Feb 5, 2009 at 11:47 AM, Seann Clark <nombrandue tsukinokage net> wrote:
Ok, with setting up the domain server, the key thing to consider, is this going be able to be queried from the internet? If so, then yes you need to register a domain, to avoid confusion and issues. If this is just going to be isolated to your local network, and not accessible outside of your network, you won't have to register a domain.


I hope that clarifies it a little bit for you



GMS S wrote:
Is it necessary to register a domain name for setting up a dns server?
Though reading ,it is not clear to me.

Thanks.

--- On *Wed, 1/28/09, Seann Clark /<nombrandue tsukinokage net>/* wrote:


   From: Seann Clark <nombrandue tsukinokage net>
   Subject: Re: How to set up a DNS server(at Home)
   To: gmspro yahoo com, "Community assistance, encouragement, and
   advice for using Fedora." <fedora-list redhat com>
   Date: Wednesday, January 28, 2009, 10:35 PM

   gmspro yahoo com </mc/compose?to=gmspro yahoo com> wrote:
   > Hi,
   > Typing this "rpm -q bind" got this:
   > bind-9.5.1-0.8.b2.fc10.i386
   >
   > In "named.conf file" I got this:
   >
   > //
   > // named.conf
   > //
   > // Provided by Red Hat bind package to configure the ISC BIND
   named(8) DNS
   > // server as a caching only nameserver (as a localhost DNS
   resolver only).
   > //
   > // See /usr/share/doc/bind*/sample/ for example named
   configuration files.
   > //
   >
   > options {
   >     listen-on port 53 { 127.0.0.1; };
   >     listen-on-v6 port 53 { ::1; };
   >     directory     "/var/named";
   >     dump-file     "/var/named/data/cache_dump.db";
   >         statistics-file "/var/named/data/named_stats.txt";
   >         memstatistics-file "/var/named/data/named_mem_stats.txt";
   >     allow-query     { localhost; };
   >     recursion yes;
   > };
   >
   > logging {
   >         channel default_debug {
   >                 file "data/named.run";
   >                 severity dynamic;
   >         };
   > };
   >
   > zone "." IN {
   >     type hint;
   >     file "named.ca";
   > };
   >
   > include "/etc/named.rfc1912.zones";
   >
   > And in "named.rfc1912.zones"
   >
   > // named.rfc1912.zones:
   > //
   > // Provided by Red Hat caching-nameserver package
   > //
   > // ISC BIND named zone configuration for zones recommended by
   > // RFC 1912 section 4.1 : localhost TLDs and address zones
   > // and
   http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-dnsop-default-local-zones-02.txt
   > // (c)2007 R W Franks
   > //
   > // See /usr/share/doc/bind*/sample/ for example named
   configuration files.
   > //
   >
   > zone "localhost.localdomain" IN {
   >     type master;
   >     file "named.localhost";
   >     allow-update { none; };
   > };
   >
   > zone "localhost" IN {
   >     type master;
   >     file "named.localhost";
   >     allow-update { none; };
   > };
   >
   > zone
   "1.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.ip6.arpa"
   IN {
   >     type master;
   >     file "named.loopback";
   >     allow-update { none; };
   > };
   >
   > zone "1.0.0.127.in-addr.arpa" IN {
   >     type master;
   >     file "named.loopback";
   >     allow-update { none; };
   > };
   >
   > zone "0.in-addr.arpa" IN {
   >     type master;
   >     file "named.empty";
   >     allow-update { none; };
   > };
   >
   > Can anyone explain the file contents in detail and about named.ca?
   > And what I have to do in step by step to set up a dns server ?
   >
   > PC configuration(Home):
   > Processor:Intel Pentium D 2.66GHz
   > Ram:1GB
   > Hard Disk:80GB
   >
   >
   >
   I hate to plug books, but this may be the easiest way to get an
   good explanation to a home user of the components on a DNS server.
   Check out http://my.safaribooksonline.com/0596100574 Which is the
   DNS BIND book, which is a very valuable asset when learning DNS.


   In a quick nutshell, the named.ca file contains the IP addresses
   and names of the 'root' DNS servers in the world. These are the
   'dot' in your .com/.net etc (actually it is the dot AFTER the .com
   but that is a little complex to get into) That file helps you find
   the DNS server of the domain you are after, starting at the root,
   or . and working down to, say if you are looking for
   www.google.com, going from the . DNS to the .com DNS to the
   google.com DNS.

   Simplest way to set up a home DNS, copy the
   'localhost.localdomain' file, keep everything down past to the NS
   listings (I believe it should be NS  localhost in that line) and
   then add in your hostnames and IP's in a format like


   host1            IN A   10.1.1.1
   host2            IN A   10.1.1.2
   host3            IN A   10.1.1.3


   Where IN is the most common use that you will find and works well
   in this situation (Stands for Internet Name, I believe) and A
   stands for the type of record. You can, after you have a few A
   entires, add in a CNAME like this


   alias      IN CNAME   host1.domain.net



   After you are done with this, you need to copy named.loopback and
   remove the same portion in that file as you did with the first
   file we edited. The format in this is a little different. If your
   network IP range is as describe above you would have to add in the
   following entires:

   1         IN PTR  host1.domain.net.
   2         IN PTR  host2.domain.net.
   3         IN PTR  host3.domain.net.


   Where PTR stands for pointer, and this provides IP to name resolution.


   your completed new domain file should be set up like this:

   $ORIGIN .
   $TTL 86400      ; 1 day
   domain.net         IN SOA  dns.domain.net. root.domain.net. (
                                  2009012801 ; serial - When updating
   the file, use current date and revision number as follows : yyyymmddrr
                                  10800      ; refresh (3 hours)
                                  900        ; retry (15 minutes)
                                  604800     ; expire (1 week)
                                  86400      ; minimum (1 day)
                                  )
                          NS      dns.domain.net
                 host1            IN A   10.1.1.1
   host2            IN A   10.1.1.2
   host3            IN A   10.1.1.3



   And your pointer record should look similar to that
   (1.1.10.in-addr.arpa instead of domain.net in the IN SOA line.)

   After that, in your named.conf file you need to add in those two
   new files into the configurations:


   zone "domain.net" IN {
      type master;
      file "domain.net";
      allow-update { none; };
   };

   zone "1.1.10.in-addr.arpa" IN {
      type master;
      file "1.1.10.conf";
      allow-update { none; };
   };

   After you start named up (service start named) if it starts file,
   you should be good to go. Since this is a fedora system named runs
   by default in a chroot jail so you can find all the files under:
   /var/named/chroot/

   to check the logs for your troubleshooting if you have issues,
   should be in /var/named/chroot/var/log or in /var/log depending on
   how  it is set up. I don't remember completely since it has been a
   long time since I have used default logging on a DNS.

   Few Gotcha's:
   in the PTR file, remember periods at the end of the lines for the
   host names. In the named.conf, make sure you didn't forget a
   semi-colon, as these are a royal pain to find (the logs give you
   an approximate position as to where it was missing/broke, but
   nothing exact) and it can be trying on the eyes. Also make sure if
   you use a firewall that TCP and UDP port 53 is opened.


   Regards,
   Seann




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--
=========================
Michael Rohan
Stone Pillar Technologies
=========================


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