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[libvirt] [PATCH] Add documentation about migration.



From: "Daniel P. Berrange" <berrange redhat com>

This adds a page documenting many aspects of migration:

 - The types of migration (managed direct, p2p, unmanaged direct)
 - Data transports (native, tunnelled)
 - Migration URIs
 - Config file handling
 - Example scenarios

* libvirt.css: Rules for data tables and diagrams
* Makefile.am: Include extra png/fig files
* migration-managed-direct.fig, migration-managed-direct.png,
  migration-managed-direct.png, migration-managed-p2p.png,
  migration-native.fig, migration-native.png,
  migration-tunnel.fig, migration-tunnel.png,
  migration-unmanaged-direct.fig, migration-unmanaged-direct.png:
  Diagrams of migration
* migration.html.in, sitemap.html.in: New migration doc
---
 docs/Makefile.am                    |   14 +-
 docs/libvirt.css                    |   48 ++++
 docs/migration-managed-direct.fig   |   58 +++++
 docs/migration-managed-direct.png   |  Bin 0 -> 3901 bytes
 docs/migration-managed-p2p.fig      |   58 +++++
 docs/migration-managed-p2p.png      |  Bin 0 -> 3901 bytes
 docs/migration-native.fig           |   43 ++++
 docs/migration-native.png           |  Bin 0 -> 2173 bytes
 docs/migration-tunnel.fig           |   49 ++++
 docs/migration-tunnel.png           |  Bin 0 -> 2237 bytes
 docs/migration-unmanaged-direct.fig |   58 +++++
 docs/migration-unmanaged-direct.png |  Bin 0 -> 3951 bytes
 docs/migration.html.in              |  419 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
 docs/sitemap.html.in                |    2 +-
 14 files changed, 730 insertions(+), 19 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 docs/migration-managed-direct.fig
 create mode 100644 docs/migration-managed-direct.png
 create mode 100644 docs/migration-managed-p2p.fig
 create mode 100644 docs/migration-managed-p2p.png
 create mode 100644 docs/migration-native.fig
 create mode 100644 docs/migration-native.png
 create mode 100644 docs/migration-tunnel.fig
 create mode 100644 docs/migration-tunnel.png
 create mode 100644 docs/migration-unmanaged-direct.fig
 create mode 100644 docs/migration-unmanaged-direct.png

diff --git a/docs/Makefile.am b/docs/Makefile.am
index 0b8f226..5644fe2 100644
--- a/docs/Makefile.am
+++ b/docs/Makefile.am
@@ -60,7 +60,12 @@ png = \
   libvirt-driver-arch.png \
   libvirt-object-model.png \
   madeWith.png \
-  et.png
+  et.png \
+  migration-managed-direct.png \
+  migration-managed-p2p.png \
+  migration-native.png \
+  migration-tunnel.png \
+  migration-unmanaged-direct.png
 
 gif = \
   architecture.gif \
@@ -85,7 +90,12 @@ fig = \
   libvirt-net-physical.fig \
   libvirt-daemon-arch.fig \
   libvirt-driver-arch.fig \
-  libvirt-object-model.fig
+  libvirt-object-model.fig \
+  migration-managed-direct.fig \
+  migration-managed-p2p.fig \
+  migration-native.fig \
+  migration-tunnel.fig \
+  migration-unmanaged-direct.fig
 
 EXTRA_DIST=					\
   apibuild.py \
diff --git a/docs/libvirt.css b/docs/libvirt.css
index 6e54b73..5123ed6 100644
--- a/docs/libvirt.css
+++ b/docs/libvirt.css
@@ -364,3 +364,51 @@ span.since {
     font-style: italic;
     font-weight: bold;
 }
+
+img.diagram {
+    background: rgb(230,230,230);
+    border: 2px dotted rgb(178,178,178);
+    padding: 1em;
+    display: block;
+    margin-left: auto;
+    margin-right: auto;
+}
+
+table.data th, table.data td {
+    padding: 0.3em;
+}
+
+table.data {
+    border-spacing: 0px;
+}
+
+table.data thead th {
+    background: rgb(178,178,178);
+    text-align: center;
+}
+
+table.data {
+    border: 1px solid black;
+    border-collapse: collapse;
+}
+
+table.data thead tr th {
+    border: 1px solid black;
+}
+
+table.data tr.head th {
+    border-left: 1px solid black;
+    border-right: 1px solid black;
+}
+
+table.data tbody td {
+    background: rgb(240,240,240);
+}
+table.data tbody td.y {
+    background: rgb(220,255,220);
+    text-align: center;
+}
+table.data tbody td.n {
+    background: rgb(255,220,220);
+    text-align: center;
+}
diff --git a/docs/migration-managed-direct.fig b/docs/migration-managed-direct.fig
new file mode 100644
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+++ b/docs/migration-managed-direct.fig
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diff --git a/docs/migration-managed-direct.png b/docs/migration-managed-direct.png
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diff --git a/docs/migration-managed-p2p.png b/docs/migration-managed-p2p.png
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diff --git a/docs/migration-unmanaged-direct.fig b/docs/migration-unmanaged-direct.fig
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d4dee04
--- /dev/null
+++ b/docs/migration-unmanaged-direct.fig
@@ -0,0 +1,58 @@
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diff --git a/docs/migration.html.in b/docs/migration.html.in
index ee72b00..4a16162 100644
--- a/docs/migration.html.in
+++ b/docs/migration.html.in
@@ -2,6 +2,8 @@
   <body>
     <h1>Guest migration</h1>
 
+    <ul id="toc"></ul>
+
     <p>
       Migration of guests between hosts is a complicated problem with many possible
       solutions, each with their own positive and negative points. For maximum
@@ -9,34 +11,419 @@
       libvirt implements several options for migration.
     </p>
 
-    <h2>Data transports</h2>
+    <h2><a id="transport">Network data transports</a></h2>
 
     <p>
       There are two options for the data transport used during migration, either
       the hypervisor's own <strong>native</strong> transport, or <strong>tunnelled</strong>
       over a libvirtd connection.
     </p>
+
+    <h3><a id="transportnative">Hypervisor native transport</a></h3>
     <p>
-      <strong>Native</strong> data transports may, or may not support encryption depending
+      <em>Native</em> data transports may, or may not support encryption depending
       on the hypervisor in question, but will typically have the lowest computational costs
       by minimising the number of data copies involved. The native data transports will also
       require extra hypervisor-specific network configuration steps by the administrator when
-      deploying a host.
+      deploying a host. For some hypervisors, it might be neccessary to open up a large range
+      of ports on the firewall to allow multiple concurrent migration operations.
+    </p>
+
+    <p>
+      <img class="diagram" src="migration-native.png" alt="Migration native path">
     </p>
+
+    <h3><a id="transporttunnel">libvirt tunnelled transport</a></h3>
     <p>
-      <strong>Tunnelled</strong> data transports will always be capable of strong encryption
+      <em>Tunnelled</em> data transports will always be capable of strong encryption
       since they are able to leverage the capabilities builtin to the libvirt RPC protocol.
-      One potentially significant downside of a tunnelled transport is that there will be
-      extra data copies involved on both the source and destinations hosts as the data is
-      moved between libvirtd &amp; the hypervisor. On the deployment side, tunnelled transports
-      do not require any extra network configuration over and above what's already required
-      for general libvirtd <a href="remote.html">remote access</a>.
+      The downside of a tunnelled transport, however, is that there will be extra data copies
+      involved on both the source and destinations hosts as the data is moved between libvirtd
+      &amp; the hypervisor. This is likely to be a more significant problem for guests with
+      very large RAM sizes, which dirty memory pages quickly. On the deployment side, tunnelled
+      transports do not require any extra network configuration over and above what's already
+      required for general libvirtd <a href="remote.html">remote access</a>, and there is only
+      need for a single port to be open on the firewall.
+    </p>
+
+    <p>
+      <img class="diagram" src="migration-tunnel.png" alt="Migration tunnel path">
+    </p>
+
+    <h2><a id="flow">Communication control paths/flows</a></h2>
+
+    <p>
+      Migration of virtual machines requires close co-ordination of the two
+      hosts involved, as well as the application invoking the migration
+      operation which might be on a third host.
+    </p>
+
+    <h3><a id="flowmanageddirect">Managed direct migration</a></h3>
+
+    <p>
+      With <em>managed, direct</em> migration, the libvirt client process
+      controls the various phases of migration. The client application must
+      be able to connect &amp; authenticate with the libvirtd daemons on both
+      the source and destination hosts. There is no need for the two libvirtd
+      daemons to communicate with each other. If the client application
+      crashes, or otherwise looses its connection to libvirtd during the
+      migration process, an attempt will be made to abort the migrastion and
+      restart the guest CPUs on the source host. There may be scenarios
+      where this cannot be safely done, in which cases the guest will be
+      left paused on one or both of the hosts.
+    </p>
+
+    <p>
+      <img class="diagram" src="migration-managed-direct.png" alt="Migration direct, managed">
+    </p>
+
+
+    <h3><a id="flowpeer2peer">Managed peer to peer migration</a></h3>
+
+    <p>
+      With <em>peer to peer</em> migration, the libvirt client process only
+      talks to the libvirtd daemon on the source host. The libvirtd daemon
+      will then connect to the destination host libvirtd and controls the
+      entire migration process itself. If the client application crashes,
+      or otherwise looses its connection to libvirtd, the migration process
+      will continue uninterrupted until completion.
+    </p>
+
+    <p>
+      <img class="diagram" src="migration-managed-p2p.png" alt="Migration peer-to-peer">
+    </p>
+
+
+    <h3><a id="flowunmanageddirect">Unmanaged direct migration</a></h3>
+
+    <p>
+      With <em>unmanaged, direct</em> migration, neither the libvirt client
+      or libvirtd daemon control the migration process. Control is instead
+      delegated to the hypervisor's over management services (if any). The
+      libvirt client merely initiates the migration via the hypervisor's
+      management layer. If the libvirt client or libvirtd crash, the
+      migration process will continue uninterrupted until completion.
+    </p>
+
+    <p>
+      <img class="diagram" src="migration-unmanaged-direct.png" alt="Migration direct, unmanaged">
+    </p>
+
+
+    <h2><a id="security">Data security</a></h2>
+
+    <p>
+      Since the migration data stream includes a complete copy of the guest
+      OS RAM, snooping of the migration data stream may allow compromise
+      of sensitive guest information. If the virtualization hosts have
+      multiple network interfaces, or if the network switches support
+      tagged VLANs, then it is very desirable to separate guest network
+      traffic from migration or management traffic.
+    </p>
+
+    <p>
+      In some scenarios, even a separate network for migration data may
+      not offer sufficient security. In this case it is possible to apply
+      encryption to the migration data stream. If the hypervisor does not
+      itself offer encryption, then the libvirt tunnelled migration
+      facility should be used.
+    </p>
+
+    <h2><a id="uris">Migration URIs</a></h2>
+
+    <p>
+      Initiating a guest migration requires the client application to
+      specify upto three URIs, depending on the choice of control
+      flow and/or APIs used. The first URI is that of the libvirt
+      connection to the source host, where the virtual guest is
+      currently running. The second URI is that of the libvirt
+      connection to the destination host, where the virtual guest
+      will be moved to. The third URI is a hypervisor specific
+      URI used to control how the guest will be migrated. With
+      any managed migration flow, the first &amp; second URIs are
+      compulsory, while the third URI is optional. With the
+      unmanaged direct migration mode, the first &amp; third URIs are
+      compulsory and the second URI is not used.
+    </p>
+
+    <p>
+      Ordinarily management applications only need to care about the
+      first and second URIs, which are both in the normal libvirt
+      connection URI format. Libvirt will then automatically determine
+      the hypervisor specific URI, by looking up the target host's
+      configured hostname. There are a few scenarios where the management
+      application may wish to have direct control over the third URI.
     </p>
 
-    <h2>Migration scenarios</h2>
+    <ol>
+      <li>The configured hostname is incorrect, or DNS is broken. If a
+        host has a hostname, which will not resolve to match one of its
+        public IP addresses, then libvirt will generate an incorrect
+        URI. In this case the management application should specify the
+        hypervisor specific URI explicitly, using an IP address, or a
+        correct hostname.</li>
+      <li>The host has multiple network interaces. If a host has multiple
+        network interfaces, it might be desirable for the migration data
+        stream to be sent over a specific interface for either security
+        or performance reasons. In this case the management application
+        should specify the hypervisor specific URI, using an IP address
+        associated with the network to be used</li>
+      <li>The firewall restricts what ports are available. When libvirt
+        generates a migration URI will pick a port number using hypervisor
+        specific rules. Some hypervisors only require a single port to be
+        open in the firewalls, while others require a whole range of port
+        numbers. In the latter case the management application may wish
+        to choose a specific port number outside the default range in order
+        to comply with local firewall policies</li>
+    </ol>
+
+    <h2><a id="config">Configuration file handling</a></h2>
 
+    <p>
+      There are two types of virtual machine known to libvirt. A <em>transient</em>
+      guest only exists while it is running, and has no configuration file stored
+      on disk. A <em>persistent</em> guest maintains a configuration file on disk
+      even when it is not running.
+    </p>
+
+    <p>
+      By default, a migration operation will not attempt to change any configuration
+      files that may be stored on either the source or destination host. It is the
+      administrator, or management application's, responsibility to manage distribution
+      of configuration files (if desired). It is important to note that the <code>/etc/libvirt</code>
+      directory <strong>MUST NEVER BE SHARED BETWEEN HOSTS</strong>. There are some
+      typical scenarios that might be applicable:
+    </p>
+
+    <ul>
+      <li>Centralized configuration files outside libvirt, in shared storage. A cluster
+        aware  management application may maintain all the master guest configuration
+        files in a cluster filesystem. When attempting to start a guest, the config
+        will be read from the cluster FS and used to deploy a persistent guest.
+        For migration the configuration wwill need to be copied to the destination
+        host and removed on the original.
+      </li>
+      <li>Centralized configuration files outside libvirt, in a database. A data center
+        management application may not storage configuration files at all. Instead it
+        may generate libvirt XML on the fly when a guest is booted. It will typically
+        use transient guests, and thus not have to consider configuration files during
+        migration.
+      </li>
+      <li>Distributed configuration inside libvirt. The configuration file for each
+        guest is copied to every host where the guest is able to run. Upon migration
+        the existing config merely needs to be updated with any changes
+      </li>
+      <li>Ad-hoc configuration management inside libvirt. Each guest is tied to a
+        specific host and rarely migrated. When migration is required, the config
+        is moved from one host to the other.
+      </li>
+    </ul>
+
+    <p>
+      As mentioned above, libvirt will not touch configuration files during
+      migration by default. The <code>virsh</code> command has two flags to
+      influence this behaviour. The  <code>--undefine-source</code> flag
+      will cause the configuration file to be removed on the source host
+      after a successful migration. The <code>--persist</code> flag will
+      cause a configuration file to be created on the destination host
+      after a successful migration. The following table summarizes the
+      configuration file handling in all possible state &amp; flag
+      combinations.
+    </p>
 
-    <h3>Native migration, client to two libvirtd servers</h3>
+    <table class="data">
+      <thead>
+        <tr class="head">
+          <th colspan="3">Before migration</th>
+          <th colspan="2">Flags</th>
+          <th colspan="3">After migration</th>
+        </tr>
+        <tr class="subhead">
+          <th>Guest type</th>
+          <th>Source config</th>
+          <th>Dest config</th>
+          <th>--undefine-source</th>
+          <th>--persist</th>
+          <th>Guest type</th>
+          <th>Source config</th>
+          <th>Dest config</th>
+        </tr>
+      </thead>
+      <tbody>
+        <!-- src:N, dst:N -->
+        <tr>
+          <td>Transient</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td>Transient</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+        </tr>
+        <tr>
+          <td>Transient</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td>Transient</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+        </tr>
+        <tr>
+          <td>Transient</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td>Persistent</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+        </tr>
+        <tr>
+          <td>Transient</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td>Persistent</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+        </tr>
+
+        <!-- src:N, dst:Y -->
+        <tr>
+          <td>Transient</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td>Persistent</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+        </tr>
+        <tr>
+          <td>Transient</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td>Persistent</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+        </tr>
+        <tr>
+          <td>Transient</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td>Persistent</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+        </tr>
+        <tr>
+          <td>Transient</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td>Persistent</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+        </tr>
+
+        <!-- src:Y dst:N -->
+        <tr>
+          <td>Persistent</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td>Transient</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+        </tr>
+        <tr>
+          <td>Persistent</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td>Transient</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+        </tr>
+        <tr>
+          <td>Persistent</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td>Persistent</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+        </tr>
+        <tr>
+          <td>Persistent</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td>Persistent</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+        </tr>
+
+        <!-- src:Y dst:Y -->
+        <tr>
+          <td>Persistent</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td>Persistent</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+        </tr>
+        <tr>
+          <td>Persistent</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td>Persistent</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+        </tr>
+        <tr>
+          <td>Persistent</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td>Persistent</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+        </tr>
+        <tr>
+          <td>Persistent</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+          <td>Persistent</td>
+          <td class="n">N</td>
+          <td class="y">Y</td>
+        </tr>
+      </tbody>
+    </table>
+
+    <h2><a id="scenarios">Migration scenarios</a></h2>
+
+
+    <h3><a id="scenarionativedirect">Native migration, client to two libvirtd servers</a></h3>
 
     <p>
       At an API level this requires use of virDomainMigrate, without the
@@ -66,7 +453,7 @@
       Supported by Xen, QEMU, VMWare and VirtualBox drivers
     </p>
 
-    <h3>Native migration, client to and peer2peer between, two libvirtd servers</h3>
+    <h3><a id="scenarionativepeer2peer">Native migration, client to and peer2peer between, two libvirtd servers</a></h3>
 
     <p>
       virDomainMigrate, with the VIR_MIGRATE_PEER2PEER flag set,
@@ -90,7 +477,7 @@
       Supported by QEMU driver
     </p>
 
-    <h3>Tunnelled migration, client and peer2peer between two libvirtd servers</h3>
+    <h3><a id="scenariotunnelpeer2peer1">Tunnelled migration, client and peer2peer between two libvirtd servers</a></h3>
 
     <p>
       virDomainMigrate, with the VIR_MIGRATE_PEER2PEER &amp; VIR_MIGRATE_TUNNELLED
@@ -113,7 +500,7 @@
       Supported by QEMU driver
     </p>
 
-    <h3>Native migration, client to one libvirtd server</h3>
+    <h3><a id="nativedirectunmanaged">Native migration, client to one libvirtd server</a></h3>
 
     <p>
       virDomainMigrateToURI, without the VIR_MIGRATE_PEER2PEER flag set,
@@ -137,7 +524,7 @@
       Supported by Xen driver
     </p>
 
-    <h3>Native migration, peer2peer between two libvirtd servers</h3>
+    <h3><a id="nativepeer2peer">Native migration, peer2peer between two libvirtd servers</a></h3>
 
     <p>
       virDomainMigrateToURI, with the VIR_MIGRATE_PEER2PEER flag set,
@@ -171,7 +558,7 @@
       Supported by the QEMU driver
     </p>
 
-    <h3>Tunnelled migration, peer2peer between two libvirtd servers</h3>
+    <h3><a id="scenariotunnelpeer2peer2">Tunnelled migration, peer2peer between two libvirtd servers</a></h3>
 
     <p>
       virDomainMigrateToURI, with the VIR_MIGRATE_PEER2PEER &amp; VIR_MIGRATE_TUNNELLED
diff --git a/docs/sitemap.html.in b/docs/sitemap.html.in
index 254efbb..1de2b20 100644
--- a/docs/sitemap.html.in
+++ b/docs/sitemap.html.in
@@ -61,7 +61,7 @@
                 <span>Configure authentication for the libvirt daemon</span>
               </li>
               <li>
-                <a href="migration.html">Guest migration</a>
+                <a href="migration.html">Migration</a>
                 <span>Migrating guests between machines</span>
               </li>
               <li>
-- 
1.7.6.4


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