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[libvirt] [PATCH 16/28] Rename pci.{c,h} to virpci.{c,h}



From: "Daniel P. Berrange" <berrange redhat com>

---
 po/POTFILES.in                     |    2 +-
 src/Makefile.am                    |    2 +-
 src/conf/node_device_conf.c        |    2 +-
 src/network/bridge_driver.c        |    2 +-
 src/node_device/node_device_hal.c  |    2 +-
 src/node_device/node_device_udev.c |    2 +-
 src/qemu/qemu_conf.h               |    2 +-
 src/qemu/qemu_driver.c             |    2 +-
 src/qemu/qemu_hostdev.c            |    2 +-
 src/qemu/qemu_hotplug.c            |    2 +-
 src/security/security_apparmor.c   |    2 +-
 src/security/security_dac.c        |    2 +-
 src/security/security_selinux.c    |    2 +-
 src/security/virt-aa-helper.c      |    2 +-
 src/util/pci.c                     | 2285 ------------------------------------
 src/util/pci.h                     |  136 ---
 src/util/virnetdev.c               |    2 +-
 src/util/virnetdev.h               |    2 +-
 src/util/virpci.c                  | 2285 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 src/util/virpci.h                  |  136 +++
 src/xen/xen_driver.c               |    2 +-
 21 files changed, 2438 insertions(+), 2438 deletions(-)
 delete mode 100644 src/util/pci.c
 delete mode 100644 src/util/pci.h
 create mode 100644 src/util/virpci.c
 create mode 100644 src/util/virpci.h

diff --git a/po/POTFILES.in b/po/POTFILES.in
index a9dfcf4..18db09b 100644
--- a/po/POTFILES.in
+++ b/po/POTFILES.in
@@ -138,7 +138,6 @@ src/test/test_driver.c
 src/uml/uml_conf.c
 src/uml/uml_driver.c
 src/util/iohelper.c
-src/util/pci.c
 src/util/processinfo.c
 src/util/sexpr.c
 src/util/stats_linux.c
@@ -171,6 +170,7 @@ src/util/virnetdevtap.c
 src/util/virnetdevvportprofile.c
 src/util/virnetlink.c
 src/util/virnodesuspend.c
+src/util/virpci.c
 src/util/virpidfile.c
 src/util/virprocess.c
 src/util/virrandom.c
diff --git a/src/Makefile.am b/src/Makefile.am
index 64f117d..d9f621f 100644
--- a/src/Makefile.am
+++ b/src/Makefile.am
@@ -53,7 +53,6 @@ augeastest_DATA =
 # These files are not related to driver APIs. Simply generic
 # helper APIs for various purposes
 UTIL_SOURCES =							\
-		util/pci.c util/pci.h				\
 		util/processinfo.c util/processinfo.h		\
 		util/sexpr.c util/sexpr.h			\
 		util/stats_linux.c util/stats_linux.h		\
@@ -85,6 +84,7 @@ UTIL_SOURCES =							\
 		util/virjson.c util/virjson.h			\
 		util/virlog.c util/virlog.h			\
 		util/virobject.c util/virobject.h		\
+		util/virpci.c util/virpci.h			\
 		util/virpidfile.c util/virpidfile.h		\
 		util/virprocess.c util/virprocess.h		\
 		util/virtypedparam.c util/virtypedparam.h	\
diff --git a/src/conf/node_device_conf.c b/src/conf/node_device_conf.c
index 85de50f..045f05d 100644
--- a/src/conf/node_device_conf.c
+++ b/src/conf/node_device_conf.c
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@
 #include "util.h"
 #include "virbuffer.h"
 #include "uuid.h"
-#include "pci.h"
+#include "virpci.h"
 #include "virrandom.h"
 
 #define VIR_FROM_THIS VIR_FROM_NODEDEV
diff --git a/src/network/bridge_driver.c b/src/network/bridge_driver.c
index 52b36a1..2db9197 100644
--- a/src/network/bridge_driver.c
+++ b/src/network/bridge_driver.c
@@ -61,7 +61,7 @@
 #include "virdnsmasq.h"
 #include "configmake.h"
 #include "virnetdev.h"
-#include "pci.h"
+#include "virpci.h"
 #include "virnetdevbridge.h"
 #include "virnetdevtap.h"
 #include "virnetdevvportprofile.h"
diff --git a/src/node_device/node_device_hal.c b/src/node_device/node_device_hal.c
index 6f89f16..257a363 100644
--- a/src/node_device/node_device_hal.c
+++ b/src/node_device/node_device_hal.c
@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@
 #include "datatypes.h"
 #include "viralloc.h"
 #include "uuid.h"
-#include "pci.h"
+#include "virpci.h"
 #include "virlog.h"
 #include "node_device_driver.h"
 #include "virdbus.h"
diff --git a/src/node_device/node_device_udev.c b/src/node_device/node_device_udev.c
index 81a11d7..7289a72 100644
--- a/src/node_device/node_device_udev.c
+++ b/src/node_device/node_device_udev.c
@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@
 #include "uuid.h"
 #include "util.h"
 #include "virbuffer.h"
-#include "pci.h"
+#include "virpci.h"
 
 #define VIR_FROM_THIS VIR_FROM_NODEDEV
 
diff --git a/src/qemu/qemu_conf.h b/src/qemu/qemu_conf.h
index 283251a..f928c29 100644
--- a/src/qemu/qemu_conf.h
+++ b/src/qemu/qemu_conf.h
@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@
 # include "threads.h"
 # include "security/security_manager.h"
 # include "vircgroup.h"
-# include "pci.h"
+# include "virpci.h"
 # include "virusb.h"
 # include "cpu_conf.h"
 # include "driver.h"
diff --git a/src/qemu/qemu_driver.c b/src/qemu/qemu_driver.c
index 65254b6..14a5e44 100644
--- a/src/qemu/qemu_driver.c
+++ b/src/qemu/qemu_driver.c
@@ -72,7 +72,7 @@
 #include "domain_conf.h"
 #include "domain_audit.h"
 #include "node_device_conf.h"
-#include "pci.h"
+#include "virpci.h"
 #include "virusb.h"
 #include "processinfo.h"
 #include "libvirt_internal.h"
diff --git a/src/qemu/qemu_hostdev.c b/src/qemu/qemu_hostdev.c
index 754f8d0..5c23ccb 100644
--- a/src/qemu/qemu_hostdev.c
+++ b/src/qemu/qemu_hostdev.c
@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@
 #include "virlog.h"
 #include "virterror_internal.h"
 #include "viralloc.h"
-#include "pci.h"
+#include "virpci.h"
 #include "virusb.h"
 #include "virnetdev.h"
 
diff --git a/src/qemu/qemu_hotplug.c b/src/qemu/qemu_hotplug.c
index c432a32..e120988 100644
--- a/src/qemu/qemu_hotplug.c
+++ b/src/qemu/qemu_hotplug.c
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@
 #include "datatypes.h"
 #include "virterror_internal.h"
 #include "viralloc.h"
-#include "pci.h"
+#include "virpci.h"
 #include "virfile.h"
 #include "qemu_cgroup.h"
 #include "locking/domain_lock.h"
diff --git a/src/security/security_apparmor.c b/src/security/security_apparmor.c
index b65384e..d28189f 100644
--- a/src/security/security_apparmor.c
+++ b/src/security/security_apparmor.c
@@ -43,7 +43,7 @@
 #include "virterror_internal.h"
 #include "datatypes.h"
 #include "uuid.h"
-#include "pci.h"
+#include "virpci.h"
 #include "virusb.h"
 #include "virfile.h"
 #include "configmake.h"
diff --git a/src/security/security_dac.c b/src/security/security_dac.c
index bdb29c7..e4f016a 100644
--- a/src/security/security_dac.c
+++ b/src/security/security_dac.c
@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@
 #include "util.h"
 #include "viralloc.h"
 #include "virlog.h"
-#include "pci.h"
+#include "virpci.h"
 #include "virusb.h"
 #include "storage_file.h"
 
diff --git a/src/security/security_selinux.c b/src/security/security_selinux.c
index 3a1548d..2adf5c9 100644
--- a/src/security/security_selinux.c
+++ b/src/security/security_selinux.c
@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@
 #include "util.h"
 #include "viralloc.h"
 #include "virlog.h"
-#include "pci.h"
+#include "virpci.h"
 #include "virusb.h"
 #include "storage_file.h"
 #include "virfile.h"
diff --git a/src/security/virt-aa-helper.c b/src/security/virt-aa-helper.c
index c9c222a..4945f7c 100644
--- a/src/security/virt-aa-helper.c
+++ b/src/security/virt-aa-helper.c
@@ -51,7 +51,7 @@
 #include "xml.h"
 #include "uuid.h"
 #include "virusb.h"
-#include "pci.h"
+#include "virpci.h"
 #include "virfile.h"
 #include "configmake.h"
 #include "virrandom.h"
diff --git a/src/util/pci.c b/src/util/pci.c
deleted file mode 100644
index e4009fa..0000000
--- a/src/util/pci.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,2285 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Copyright (C) 2009-2012 Red Hat, Inc.
- *
- * This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
- * modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
- * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
- * version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
- *
- * This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
- * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
- * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
- * Lesser General Public License for more details.
- *
- * You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
- * License along with this library.  If not, see
- * <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
- *
- * Authors:
- *     Mark McLoughlin <markmc redhat com>
- */
-
-#include <config.h>
-
-#include "pci.h"
-
-#include <dirent.h>
-#include <fcntl.h>
-#include <inttypes.h>
-#include <limits.h>
-#include <stdio.h>
-#include <string.h>
-#include <sys/types.h>
-#include <sys/stat.h>
-#include <unistd.h>
-#include <stdlib.h>
-
-#include "virlog.h"
-#include "viralloc.h"
-#include "vircommand.h"
-#include "virterror_internal.h"
-#include "virfile.h"
-
-#define PCI_SYSFS "/sys/bus/pci/"
-#define PCI_ID_LEN 10   /* "XXXX XXXX" */
-#define PCI_ADDR_LEN 13 /* "XXXX:XX:XX.X" */
-
-#define SRIOV_FOUND 0
-#define SRIOV_NOT_FOUND 1
-#define SRIOV_ERROR -1
-
-struct _pciDevice {
-    unsigned      domain;
-    unsigned      bus;
-    unsigned      slot;
-    unsigned      function;
-
-    char          name[PCI_ADDR_LEN]; /* domain:bus:slot.function */
-    char          id[PCI_ID_LEN];     /* product vendor */
-    char          *path;
-    const char    *used_by;           /* The domain which uses the device */
-
-    unsigned      pcie_cap_pos;
-    unsigned      pci_pm_cap_pos;
-    unsigned      has_flr : 1;
-    unsigned      has_pm_reset : 1;
-    unsigned      managed : 1;
-
-    /* used by reattach function */
-    unsigned      unbind_from_stub : 1;
-    unsigned      remove_slot : 1;
-    unsigned      reprobe : 1;
-};
-
-struct _pciDeviceList {
-    unsigned count;
-    pciDevice **devs;
-};
-
-
-/* For virReportOOMError()  and virReportSystemError() */
-#define VIR_FROM_THIS VIR_FROM_NONE
-
-/* Specifications referenced in comments:
- *  PCI30  - PCI Local Bus Specification 3.0
- *  PCIe20 - PCI Express Base Specification 2.0
- *  BR12   - PCI-to-PCI Bridge Architecture Specification 1.2
- *  PM12   - PCI Bus Power Management Interface Specification 1.2
- *  ECN_AF - Advanced Capabilities for Conventional PCI ECN
- */
-
-/* Type 0 config space header length; PCI30 Section 6.1 Configuration Space Organization */
-#define PCI_CONF_LEN            0x100
-#define PCI_CONF_HEADER_LEN     0x40
-
-/* PCI30 6.2.1 */
-#define PCI_HEADER_TYPE         0x0e    /* Header type */
-#define PCI_HEADER_TYPE_BRIDGE 0x1
-#define PCI_HEADER_TYPE_MASK   0x7f
-#define PCI_HEADER_TYPE_MULTI  0x80
-
-/* PCI30 6.2.1  Device Identification */
-#define PCI_CLASS_DEVICE        0x0a    /* Device class */
-
-/* Class Code for bridge; PCI30 D.7  Base Class 06h */
-#define PCI_CLASS_BRIDGE_PCI    0x0604
-
-/* PCI30 6.2.3  Device Status */
-#define PCI_STATUS              0x06    /* 16 bits */
-#define PCI_STATUS_CAP_LIST    0x10    /* Support Capability List */
-
-/* PCI30 6.7  Capabilities List */
-#define PCI_CAPABILITY_LIST     0x34    /* Offset of first capability list entry */
-
-/* PM12 3.2.1  Capability Identifier */
-#define PCI_CAP_ID_PM           0x01    /* Power Management */
-/* PCI30 H Capability IDs */
-#define PCI_CAP_ID_EXP          0x10    /* PCI Express */
-/* ECN_AF 6.x.1.1  Capability ID for AF */
-#define PCI_CAP_ID_AF           0x13    /* Advanced Features */
-
-/* PCIe20 7.8.3  Device Capabilities Register (Offset 04h) */
-#define PCI_EXP_DEVCAP          0x4     /* Device capabilities */
-#define PCI_EXP_DEVCAP_FLR     (1<<28) /* Function Level Reset */
-
-/* Header type 1 BR12 3.2 PCI-to-PCI Bridge Configuration Space Header Format */
-#define PCI_PRIMARY_BUS         0x18    /* BR12 3.2.5.2 Primary bus number */
-#define PCI_SECONDARY_BUS       0x19    /* BR12 3.2.5.3 Secondary bus number */
-#define PCI_SUBORDINATE_BUS     0x1a    /* BR12 3.2.5.4 Highest bus number behind the bridge */
-#define PCI_BRIDGE_CONTROL      0x3e
-/* BR12 3.2.5.18  Bridge Control Register */
-#define PCI_BRIDGE_CTL_RESET   0x40    /* Secondary bus reset */
-
-/* PM12 3.2.4  Power Management Control/Status (Offset = 4) */
-#define PCI_PM_CTRL                4    /* PM control and status register */
-#define PCI_PM_CTRL_STATE_MASK    0x3  /* Current power state (D0 to D3) */
-#define PCI_PM_CTRL_STATE_D0      0x0  /* D0 state */
-#define PCI_PM_CTRL_STATE_D3hot   0x3  /* D3 state */
-#define PCI_PM_CTRL_NO_SOFT_RESET 0x8  /* No reset for D3hot->D0 */
-
-/* ECN_AF 6.x.1  Advanced Features Capability Structure */
-#define PCI_AF_CAP              0x3     /* Advanced features capabilities */
-#define PCI_AF_CAP_FLR         0x2     /* Function Level Reset */
-
-#define PCI_EXP_FLAGS           0x2
-#define PCI_EXP_FLAGS_TYPE      0x00f0
-#define PCI_EXP_TYPE_DOWNSTREAM 0x6
-
-#define PCI_EXT_CAP_BASE          0x100
-#define PCI_EXT_CAP_LIMIT         0x1000
-#define PCI_EXT_CAP_ID_MASK       0x0000ffff
-#define PCI_EXT_CAP_OFFSET_SHIFT  20
-#define PCI_EXT_CAP_OFFSET_MASK   0x00000ffc
-
-#define PCI_EXT_CAP_ID_ACS      0x000d
-#define PCI_EXT_ACS_CTRL        0x06
-
-#define PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_SV      0x01
-#define PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_RR      0x04
-#define PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_CR      0x08
-#define PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_UF      0x10
-#define PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_ENABLED (PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_SV | \
-                                 PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_RR | \
-                                 PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_CR | \
-                                 PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_UF)
-
-static int
-pciConfigOpen(pciDevice *dev, bool fatal)
-{
-    int fd;
-
-    fd = open(dev->path, O_RDWR);
-
-    if (fd < 0) {
-        if (fatal) {
-            virReportSystemError(errno,
-                                 _("Failed to open config space file '%s'"),
-                                 dev->path);
-        } else {
-            char ebuf[1024];
-            VIR_WARN("Failed to open config space file '%s': %s",
-                     dev->path, virStrerror(errno, ebuf, sizeof(ebuf)));
-        }
-        return -1;
-    }
-
-    VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: opened %s", dev->id, dev->name, dev->path);
-    return fd;
-}
-
-static void
-pciConfigClose(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd)
-{
-    if (VIR_CLOSE(cfgfd) < 0) {
-        char ebuf[1024];
-        VIR_WARN("Failed to close config space file '%s': %s",
-                 dev->path, virStrerror(errno, ebuf, sizeof(ebuf)));
-    }
-}
-
-
-static int
-pciRead(pciDevice *dev,
-        int cfgfd,
-        unsigned pos,
-        uint8_t *buf,
-        unsigned buflen)
-{
-    memset(buf, 0, buflen);
-
-    if (lseek(cfgfd, pos, SEEK_SET) != pos ||
-        saferead(cfgfd, buf, buflen) != buflen) {
-        char ebuf[1024];
-        VIR_WARN("Failed to read from '%s' : %s", dev->path,
-                 virStrerror(errno, ebuf, sizeof(ebuf)));
-        return -1;
-    }
-    return 0;
-}
-
-static uint8_t
-pciRead8(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd, unsigned pos)
-{
-    uint8_t buf;
-    pciRead(dev, cfgfd, pos, &buf, sizeof(buf));
-    return buf;
-}
-
-static uint16_t
-pciRead16(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd, unsigned pos)
-{
-    uint8_t buf[2];
-    pciRead(dev, cfgfd, pos, &buf[0], sizeof(buf));
-    return (buf[0] << 0) | (buf[1] << 8);
-}
-
-static uint32_t
-pciRead32(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd, unsigned pos)
-{
-    uint8_t buf[4];
-    pciRead(dev, cfgfd, pos, &buf[0], sizeof(buf));
-    return (buf[0] << 0) | (buf[1] << 8) | (buf[2] << 16) | (buf[3] << 24);
-}
-
-static int
-pciWrite(pciDevice *dev,
-         int cfgfd,
-         unsigned pos,
-         uint8_t *buf,
-         unsigned buflen)
-{
-    if (lseek(cfgfd, pos, SEEK_SET) != pos ||
-        safewrite(cfgfd, buf, buflen) != buflen) {
-        char ebuf[1024];
-        VIR_WARN("Failed to write to '%s' : %s", dev->path,
-                 virStrerror(errno, ebuf, sizeof(ebuf)));
-        return -1;
-    }
-    return 0;
-}
-
-static void
-pciWrite16(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd, unsigned pos, uint16_t val)
-{
-    uint8_t buf[2] = { (val >> 0), (val >> 8) };
-    pciWrite(dev, cfgfd, pos, &buf[0], sizeof(buf));
-}
-
-static void
-pciWrite32(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd, unsigned pos, uint32_t val)
-{
-    uint8_t buf[4] = { (val >> 0), (val >> 8), (val >> 16), (val >> 24) };
-    pciWrite(dev, cfgfd, pos, &buf[0], sizeof(buf));
-}
-
-typedef int (*pciIterPredicate)(pciDevice *, pciDevice *, void *);
-
-/* Iterate over available PCI devices calling @predicate
- * to compare each one to @dev.
- * Return -1 on error since we don't want to assume it is
- * safe to reset if there is an error.
- */
-static int
-pciIterDevices(pciIterPredicate predicate,
-               pciDevice *dev,
-               pciDevice **matched,
-               void *data)
-{
-    DIR *dir;
-    struct dirent *entry;
-    int ret = 0;
-    int rc;
-
-    *matched = NULL;
-
-    VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: iterating over " PCI_SYSFS "devices", dev->id, dev->name);
-
-    dir = opendir(PCI_SYSFS "devices");
-    if (!dir) {
-        VIR_WARN("Failed to open " PCI_SYSFS "devices");
-        return -1;
-    }
-
-    while ((entry = readdir(dir))) {
-        unsigned int domain, bus, slot, function;
-        pciDevice *check;
-        char *tmp;
-
-        /* Ignore '.' and '..' */
-        if (entry->d_name[0] == '.')
-            continue;
-
-        /* expected format: <domain>:<bus>:<slot>.<function> */
-        if (/* domain */
-            virStrToLong_ui(entry->d_name, &tmp, 16, &domain) < 0 || *tmp != ':' ||
-            /* bus */
-            virStrToLong_ui(tmp + 1, &tmp, 16, &bus) < 0 || *tmp != ':' ||
-            /* slot */
-            virStrToLong_ui(tmp + 1, &tmp, 16, &slot) < 0 || *tmp != '.' ||
-            /* function */
-            virStrToLong_ui(tmp + 1, NULL, 16, &function) < 0) {
-            VIR_WARN("Unusual entry in " PCI_SYSFS "devices: %s", entry->d_name);
-            continue;
-        }
-
-        check = pciGetDevice(domain, bus, slot, function);
-        if (!check) {
-            ret = -1;
-            break;
-        }
-
-        rc = predicate(dev, check, data);
-        if (rc < 0) {
-            /* the predicate returned an error, bail */
-            pciFreeDevice(check);
-            ret = -1;
-            break;
-        }
-        else if (rc == 1) {
-            VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: iter matched on %s", dev->id, dev->name, check->name);
-            *matched = check;
-            ret = 1;
-            break;
-        }
-
-        pciFreeDevice(check);
-    }
-    closedir(dir);
-    return ret;
-}
-
-static uint8_t
-pciFindCapabilityOffset(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd, unsigned capability)
-{
-    uint16_t status;
-    uint8_t pos;
-
-    status = pciRead16(dev, cfgfd, PCI_STATUS);
-    if (!(status & PCI_STATUS_CAP_LIST))
-        return 0;
-
-    pos = pciRead8(dev, cfgfd, PCI_CAPABILITY_LIST);
-
-    /* Zero indicates last capability, capabilities can't
-     * be in the config space header and 0xff is returned
-     * by the kernel if we don't have access to this region
-     *
-     * Note: we're not handling loops or extended
-     * capabilities here.
-     */
-    while (pos >= PCI_CONF_HEADER_LEN && pos != 0xff) {
-        uint8_t capid = pciRead8(dev, cfgfd, pos);
-        if (capid == capability) {
-            VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: found cap 0x%.2x at 0x%.2x",
-                      dev->id, dev->name, capability, pos);
-            return pos;
-        }
-
-        pos = pciRead8(dev, cfgfd, pos + 1);
-    }
-
-    VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: failed to find cap 0x%.2x", dev->id, dev->name, capability);
-
-    return 0;
-}
-
-static unsigned int
-pciFindExtendedCapabilityOffset(pciDevice *dev,
-                                int cfgfd,
-                                unsigned capability)
-{
-    int ttl;
-    unsigned int pos;
-    uint32_t header;
-
-    /* minimum 8 bytes per capability */
-    ttl = (PCI_EXT_CAP_LIMIT - PCI_EXT_CAP_BASE) / 8;
-    pos = PCI_EXT_CAP_BASE;
-
-    while (ttl > 0 && pos >= PCI_EXT_CAP_BASE) {
-        header = pciRead32(dev, cfgfd, pos);
-
-        if ((header & PCI_EXT_CAP_ID_MASK) == capability)
-            return pos;
-
-        pos = (header >> PCI_EXT_CAP_OFFSET_SHIFT) & PCI_EXT_CAP_OFFSET_MASK;
-        ttl--;
-    }
-
-    return 0;
-}
-
-/* detects whether this device has FLR.  Returns 0 if the device does
- * not have FLR, 1 if it does, and -1 on error
- */
-static int
-pciDetectFunctionLevelReset(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd)
-{
-    uint32_t caps;
-    uint8_t pos;
-    char *path;
-    int found;
-
-    /* The PCIe Function Level Reset capability allows
-     * individual device functions to be reset without
-     * affecting any other functions on the device or
-     * any other devices on the bus. This is only common
-     * on SR-IOV NICs at the moment.
-     */
-    if (dev->pcie_cap_pos) {
-        caps = pciRead32(dev, cfgfd, dev->pcie_cap_pos + PCI_EXP_DEVCAP);
-        if (caps & PCI_EXP_DEVCAP_FLR) {
-            VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: detected PCIe FLR capability", dev->id, dev->name);
-            return 1;
-        }
-    }
-
-    /* The PCI AF Function Level Reset capability is
-     * the same thing, except for conventional PCI
-     * devices. This is not common yet.
-     */
-    pos = pciFindCapabilityOffset(dev, cfgfd, PCI_CAP_ID_AF);
-    if (pos) {
-        caps = pciRead16(dev, cfgfd, pos + PCI_AF_CAP);
-        if (caps & PCI_AF_CAP_FLR) {
-            VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: detected PCI FLR capability", dev->id, dev->name);
-            return 1;
-        }
-    }
-
-    /* there are some buggy devices that do support FLR, but forget to
-     * advertise that fact in their capabilities.  However, FLR is *required*
-     * to be present for virtual functions (VFs), so if we see that this
-     * device is a VF, we just assume FLR works
-     */
-
-    if (virAsprintf(&path, PCI_SYSFS "devices/%s/physfn", dev->name) < 0) {
-        virReportOOMError();
-        return -1;
-    }
-
-    found = virFileExists(path);
-    VIR_FREE(path);
-    if (found) {
-        VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: buggy device didn't advertise FLR, but is a VF; forcing flr on",
-                  dev->id, dev->name);
-        return 1;
-    }
-
-    VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: no FLR capability found", dev->id, dev->name);
-
-    return 0;
-}
-
-/* Require the device has the PCI Power Management capability
- * and that a D3hot->D0 transition will results in a full
- * internal reset, not just a soft reset.
- */
-static unsigned
-pciDetectPowerManagementReset(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd)
-{
-    if (dev->pci_pm_cap_pos) {
-        uint32_t ctl;
-
-        /* require the NO_SOFT_RESET bit is clear */
-        ctl = pciRead32(dev, cfgfd, dev->pci_pm_cap_pos + PCI_PM_CTRL);
-        if (!(ctl & PCI_PM_CTRL_NO_SOFT_RESET)) {
-            VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: detected PM reset capability", dev->id, dev->name);
-            return 1;
-        }
-    }
-
-    VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: no PM reset capability found", dev->id, dev->name);
-
-    return 0;
-}
-
-/* Any active devices on the same domain/bus ? */
-static int
-pciSharesBusWithActive(pciDevice *dev, pciDevice *check, void *data)
-{
-    pciDeviceList *inactiveDevs = data;
-
-    /* Different domain, different bus, or simply identical device */
-    if (dev->domain != check->domain ||
-        dev->bus != check->bus ||
-        (dev->slot == check->slot &&
-         dev->function == check->function))
-        return 0;
-
-    /* same bus, but inactive, i.e. about to be assigned to guest */
-    if (inactiveDevs && pciDeviceListFind(inactiveDevs, check))
-        return 0;
-
-    return 1;
-}
-
-static pciDevice *
-pciBusContainsActiveDevices(pciDevice *dev,
-                            pciDeviceList *inactiveDevs)
-{
-    pciDevice *active = NULL;
-    if (pciIterDevices(pciSharesBusWithActive,
-                       dev, &active, inactiveDevs) < 0)
-        return NULL;
-    return active;
-}
-
-/* Is @check the parent of @dev ? */
-static int
-pciIsParent(pciDevice *dev, pciDevice *check, void *data)
-{
-    uint16_t device_class;
-    uint8_t header_type, secondary, subordinate;
-    pciDevice **best = data;
-    int ret = 0;
-    int fd;
-
-    if (dev->domain != check->domain)
-        return 0;
-
-    if ((fd = pciConfigOpen(check, false)) < 0)
-        return 0;
-
-    /* Is it a bridge? */
-    device_class = pciRead16(check, fd, PCI_CLASS_DEVICE);
-    if (device_class != PCI_CLASS_BRIDGE_PCI)
-        goto cleanup;
-
-    /* Is it a plane? */
-    header_type = pciRead8(check, fd, PCI_HEADER_TYPE);
-    if ((header_type & PCI_HEADER_TYPE_MASK) != PCI_HEADER_TYPE_BRIDGE)
-        goto cleanup;
-
-    secondary   = pciRead8(check, fd, PCI_SECONDARY_BUS);
-    subordinate = pciRead8(check, fd, PCI_SUBORDINATE_BUS);
-
-    VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: found parent device %s", dev->id, dev->name, check->name);
-
-    /* if the secondary bus exactly equals the device's bus, then we found
-     * the direct parent.  No further work is necessary
-     */
-    if (dev->bus == secondary) {
-        ret = 1;
-        goto cleanup;
-    }
-
-    /* otherwise, SRIOV allows VFs to be on different busses then their PFs.
-     * In this case, what we need to do is look for the "best" match; i.e.
-     * the most restrictive match that still satisfies all of the conditions.
-     */
-    if (dev->bus > secondary && dev->bus <= subordinate) {
-        if (*best == NULL) {
-            *best = pciGetDevice(check->domain, check->bus, check->slot,
-                                 check->function);
-            if (*best == NULL) {
-                ret = -1;
-                goto cleanup;
-            }
-        } else {
-            /* OK, we had already recorded a previous "best" match for the
-             * parent.  See if the current device is more restrictive than the
-             * best, and if so, make it the new best
-             */
-            int bestfd;
-            uint8_t best_secondary;
-
-            if ((bestfd = pciConfigOpen(*best, false)) < 0)
-                goto cleanup;
-            best_secondary = pciRead8(*best, bestfd, PCI_SECONDARY_BUS);
-            pciConfigClose(*best, bestfd);
-
-            if (secondary > best_secondary) {
-                pciFreeDevice(*best);
-                *best = pciGetDevice(check->domain, check->bus, check->slot,
-                                     check->function);
-                if (*best == NULL) {
-                    ret = -1;
-                    goto cleanup;
-                }
-            }
-        }
-    }
-
-cleanup:
-    pciConfigClose(check, fd);
-    return ret;
-}
-
-static int
-pciGetParentDevice(pciDevice *dev, pciDevice **parent)
-{
-    pciDevice *best = NULL;
-    int ret;
-
-    *parent = NULL;
-    ret = pciIterDevices(pciIsParent, dev, parent, &best);
-    if (ret == 1)
-        pciFreeDevice(best);
-    else if (ret == 0)
-        *parent = best;
-    return ret;
-}
-
-/* Secondary Bus Reset is our sledgehammer - it resets all
- * devices behind a bus.
- */
-static int
-pciTrySecondaryBusReset(pciDevice *dev,
-                        int cfgfd,
-                        pciDeviceList *inactiveDevs)
-{
-    pciDevice *parent, *conflict;
-    uint8_t config_space[PCI_CONF_LEN];
-    uint16_t ctl;
-    int ret = -1;
-    int parentfd;
-
-    /* Refuse to do a secondary bus reset if there are other
-     * devices/functions behind the bus are used by the host
-     * or other guests.
-     */
-    if ((conflict = pciBusContainsActiveDevices(dev, inactiveDevs))) {
-        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
-                       _("Active %s devices on bus with %s, not doing bus reset"),
-                       conflict->name, dev->name);
-        return -1;
-    }
-
-    /* Find the parent bus */
-    if (pciGetParentDevice(dev, &parent) < 0)
-        return -1;
-    if (!parent) {
-        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
-                       _("Failed to find parent device for %s"),
-                       dev->name);
-        return -1;
-    }
-    if ((parentfd = pciConfigOpen(parent, true)) < 0)
-        goto out;
-
-    VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: doing a secondary bus reset", dev->id, dev->name);
-
-    /* Save and restore the device's config space; we only do this
-     * for the supplied device since we refuse to do a reset if there
-     * are multiple devices/functions
-     */
-    if (pciRead(dev, cfgfd, 0, config_space, PCI_CONF_LEN) < 0) {
-        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
-                       _("Failed to read PCI config space for %s"),
-                       dev->name);
-        goto out;
-    }
-
-    /* Read the control register, set the reset flag, wait 200ms,
-     * unset the reset flag and wait 200ms.
-     */
-    ctl = pciRead16(dev, cfgfd, PCI_BRIDGE_CONTROL);
-
-    pciWrite16(parent, parentfd, PCI_BRIDGE_CONTROL,
-               ctl | PCI_BRIDGE_CTL_RESET);
-
-    usleep(200 * 1000); /* sleep 200ms */
-
-    pciWrite16(parent, parentfd, PCI_BRIDGE_CONTROL, ctl);
-
-    usleep(200 * 1000); /* sleep 200ms */
-
-    if (pciWrite(dev, cfgfd, 0, config_space, PCI_CONF_LEN) < 0) {
-        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
-                       _("Failed to restore PCI config space for %s"),
-                       dev->name);
-        goto out;
-    }
-    ret = 0;
-
-out:
-    pciConfigClose(parent, parentfd);
-    pciFreeDevice(parent);
-    return ret;
-}
-
-/* Power management reset attempts to reset a device using a
- * D-state transition from D3hot to D0. Note, in detect_pm_reset()
- * above we require the device supports a full internal reset.
- */
-static int
-pciTryPowerManagementReset(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd)
-{
-    uint8_t config_space[PCI_CONF_LEN];
-    uint32_t ctl;
-
-    if (!dev->pci_pm_cap_pos)
-        return -1;
-
-    /* Save and restore the device's config space. */
-    if (pciRead(dev, cfgfd, 0, &config_space[0], PCI_CONF_LEN) < 0) {
-        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
-                       _("Failed to read PCI config space for %s"),
-                       dev->name);
-        return -1;
-    }
-
-    VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: doing a power management reset", dev->id, dev->name);
-
-    ctl = pciRead32(dev, cfgfd, dev->pci_pm_cap_pos + PCI_PM_CTRL);
-    ctl &= ~PCI_PM_CTRL_STATE_MASK;
-
-    pciWrite32(dev, cfgfd, dev->pci_pm_cap_pos + PCI_PM_CTRL,
-               ctl | PCI_PM_CTRL_STATE_D3hot);
-
-    usleep(10 * 1000); /* sleep 10ms */
-
-    pciWrite32(dev, cfgfd, dev->pci_pm_cap_pos + PCI_PM_CTRL,
-               ctl | PCI_PM_CTRL_STATE_D0);
-
-    usleep(10 * 1000); /* sleep 10ms */
-
-    if (pciWrite(dev, cfgfd, 0, &config_space[0], PCI_CONF_LEN) < 0) {
-        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
-                       _("Failed to restore PCI config space for %s"),
-                       dev->name);
-        return -1;
-    }
-
-    return 0;
-}
-
-static int
-pciInitDevice(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd)
-{
-    int flr;
-
-    dev->pcie_cap_pos   = pciFindCapabilityOffset(dev, cfgfd, PCI_CAP_ID_EXP);
-    dev->pci_pm_cap_pos = pciFindCapabilityOffset(dev, cfgfd, PCI_CAP_ID_PM);
-    flr = pciDetectFunctionLevelReset(dev, cfgfd);
-    if (flr < 0)
-        return flr;
-    dev->has_flr        = flr;
-    dev->has_pm_reset   = pciDetectPowerManagementReset(dev, cfgfd);
-
-    return 0;
-}
-
-int
-pciResetDevice(pciDevice *dev,
-               pciDeviceList *activeDevs,
-               pciDeviceList *inactiveDevs)
-{
-    int ret = -1;
-    int fd;
-
-    if (activeDevs && pciDeviceListFind(activeDevs, dev)) {
-        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
-                       _("Not resetting active device %s"), dev->name);
-        return -1;
-    }
-
-    if ((fd = pciConfigOpen(dev, true)) < 0)
-        return -1;
-
-    if (pciInitDevice(dev, fd) < 0)
-        goto cleanup;
-
-    /* KVM will perform FLR when starting and stopping
-     * a guest, so there is no need for us to do it here.
-     */
-    if (dev->has_flr) {
-        ret = 0;
-        goto cleanup;
-    }
-
-    /* If the device supports PCI power management reset,
-     * that's the next best thing because it only resets
-     * the function, not the whole device.
-     */
-    if (dev->has_pm_reset)
-        ret = pciTryPowerManagementReset(dev, fd);
-
-    /* Bus reset is not an option with the root bus */
-    if (ret < 0 && dev->bus != 0)
-        ret = pciTrySecondaryBusReset(dev, fd, inactiveDevs);
-
-    if (ret < 0) {
-        virErrorPtr err = virGetLastError();
-        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
-                       _("Unable to reset PCI device %s: %s"),
-                       dev->name,
-                       err ? err->message : _("no FLR, PM reset or bus reset available"));
-    }
-
-cleanup:
-    pciConfigClose(dev, fd);
-    return ret;
-}
-
-
-static int
-pciDriverDir(char **buffer, const char *driver)
-{
-    VIR_FREE(*buffer);
-
-    if (virAsprintf(buffer, PCI_SYSFS "drivers/%s", driver) < 0) {
-        virReportOOMError();
-        return -1;
-    }
-
-    return 0;
-}
-
-static int
-pciDriverFile(char **buffer, const char *driver, const char *file)
-{
-    VIR_FREE(*buffer);
-
-    if (virAsprintf(buffer, PCI_SYSFS "drivers/%s/%s", driver, file) < 0) {
-        virReportOOMError();
-        return -1;
-    }
-
-    return 0;
-}
-
-static int
-pciDeviceFile(char **buffer, const char *device, const char *file)
-{
-    VIR_FREE(*buffer);
-
-    if (virAsprintf(buffer, PCI_SYSFS "devices/%s/%s", device, file) < 0) {
-        virReportOOMError();
-        return -1;
-    }
-
-    return 0;
-}
-
-
-static const char *
-pciFindStubDriver(void)
-{
-    char *drvpath = NULL;
-    int probed = 0;
-
-recheck:
-    if (pciDriverDir(&drvpath, "pci-stub") < 0) {
-        return NULL;
-    }
-
-    if (virFileExists(drvpath)) {
-        VIR_FREE(drvpath);
-        return "pci-stub";
-    }
-
-    if (pciDriverDir(&drvpath, "pciback") < 0) {
-        return NULL;
-    }
-
-    if (virFileExists(drvpath)) {
-        VIR_FREE(drvpath);
-        return "pciback";
-    }
-
-    VIR_FREE(drvpath);
-
-    if (!probed) {
-        const char *const stubprobe[] = { MODPROBE, "pci-stub", NULL };
-        const char *const backprobe[] = { MODPROBE, "pciback", NULL };
-
-        probed = 1;
-        /*
-         * Probing for pci-stub will succeed regardless of whether
-         * on native or Xen kernels.
-         * On Xen though, we want to prefer pciback, so probe
-         * for that first, because that will only work on Xen
-         */
-        if (virRun(backprobe, NULL) < 0 &&
-            virRun(stubprobe, NULL) < 0) {
-            char ebuf[1024];
-            VIR_WARN("failed to load pci-stub or pciback drivers: %s",
-                     virStrerror(errno, ebuf, sizeof(ebuf)));
-            return NULL;
-        }
-
-        goto recheck;
-    }
-
-    return NULL;
-}
-
-static int
-pciUnbindDeviceFromStub(pciDevice *dev, const char *driver)
-{
-    int result = -1;
-    char *drvdir = NULL;
-    char *path = NULL;
-
-    if (pciDriverDir(&drvdir, driver) < 0)
-        goto cleanup;
-
-    if (!dev->unbind_from_stub)
-        goto remove_slot;
-
-    /* If the device is bound to stub, unbind it.
-     */
-    if (pciDeviceFile(&path, dev->name, "driver") < 0)
-        goto cleanup;
-
-    if (virFileExists(drvdir) && virFileLinkPointsTo(path, drvdir)) {
-        if (pciDriverFile(&path, driver, "unbind") < 0) {
-            goto cleanup;
-        }
-
-        if (virFileWriteStr(path, dev->name, 0) < 0) {
-            virReportSystemError(errno,
-                                 _("Failed to unbind PCI device '%s' from %s"),
-                                 dev->name, driver);
-            goto cleanup;
-        }
-    }
-    dev->unbind_from_stub = 0;
-
-remove_slot:
-    if (!dev->remove_slot)
-        goto reprobe;
-
-    /* Xen's pciback.ko wants you to use remove_slot on the specific device */
-    if (pciDriverFile(&path, driver, "remove_slot") < 0) {
-        goto cleanup;
-    }
-
-    if (virFileExists(path) && virFileWriteStr(path, dev->name, 0) < 0) {
-        virReportSystemError(errno,
-                             _("Failed to remove slot for PCI device '%s' from %s"),
-                             dev->name, driver);
-        goto cleanup;
-    }
-    dev->remove_slot = 0;
-
-reprobe:
-    if (!dev->reprobe) {
-        result = 0;
-        goto cleanup;
-    }
-
-    /* Trigger a re-probe of the device is not in the stub's dynamic
-     * ID table. If the stub is available, but 'remove_id' isn't
-     * available, then re-probing would just cause the device to be
-     * re-bound to the stub.
-     */
-    if (pciDriverFile(&path, driver, "remove_id") < 0) {
-        goto cleanup;
-    }
-
-    if (!virFileExists(drvdir) || virFileExists(path)) {
-        if (virFileWriteStr(PCI_SYSFS "drivers_probe", dev->name, 0) < 0) {
-            virReportSystemError(errno,
-                                 _("Failed to trigger a re-probe for PCI device '%s'"),
-                                 dev->name);
-            goto cleanup;
-        }
-    }
-
-    result = 0;
-
-cleanup:
-    /* do not do it again */
-    dev->unbind_from_stub = 0;
-    dev->remove_slot = 0;
-    dev->reprobe = 0;
-
-    VIR_FREE(drvdir);
-    VIR_FREE(path);
-
-    return result;
-}
-
-
-static int
-pciBindDeviceToStub(pciDevice *dev, const char *driver)
-{
-    int result = -1;
-    char *drvdir = NULL;
-    char *path = NULL;
-    int reprobe = 0;
-
-    /* check whether the device is already bound to a driver */
-    if (pciDriverDir(&drvdir, driver) < 0 ||
-        pciDeviceFile(&path, dev->name, "driver") < 0) {
-        goto cleanup;
-    }
-
-    if (virFileExists(path)) {
-        if (virFileLinkPointsTo(path, drvdir)) {
-            /* The device is already bound to pci-stub */
-            result = 0;
-            goto cleanup;
-        }
-        reprobe = 1;
-    }
-
-    /* Add the PCI device ID to the stub's dynamic ID table;
-     * this is needed to allow us to bind the device to the stub.
-     * Note: if the device is not currently bound to any driver,
-     * stub will immediately be bound to the device. Also, note
-     * that if a new device with this ID is hotplugged, or if a probe
-     * is triggered for such a device, it will also be immediately
-     * bound by the stub.
-     */
-    if (pciDriverFile(&path, driver, "new_id") < 0) {
-        goto cleanup;
-    }
-
-    if (virFileWriteStr(path, dev->id, 0) < 0) {
-        virReportSystemError(errno,
-                             _("Failed to add PCI device ID '%s' to %s"),
-                             dev->id, driver);
-        goto cleanup;
-    }
-
-    /* check whether the device is bound to pci-stub when we write dev->id to
-     * new_id.
-     */
-    if (pciDriverDir(&drvdir, driver) < 0 ||
-        pciDeviceFile(&path, dev->name, "driver") < 0) {
-        goto remove_id;
-    }
-
-    if (virFileLinkPointsTo(path, drvdir)) {
-        dev->unbind_from_stub = 1;
-        dev->remove_slot = 1;
-        goto remove_id;
-    }
-
-    /* If the device is already bound to a driver, unbind it.
-     * Note, this will have rather unpleasant side effects if this
-     * PCI device happens to be IDE controller for the disk hosting
-     * your root filesystem.
-     */
-    if (pciDeviceFile(&path, dev->name, "driver/unbind") < 0) {
-        goto cleanup;
-    }
-
-    if (virFileExists(path)) {
-        if (virFileWriteStr(path, dev->name, 0) < 0) {
-            virReportSystemError(errno,
-                                 _("Failed to unbind PCI device '%s'"),
-                                 dev->name);
-            goto cleanup;
-        }
-        dev->reprobe = reprobe;
-    }
-
-    /* If the device isn't already bound to pci-stub, try binding it now.
-     */
-    if (pciDriverDir(&drvdir, driver) < 0 ||
-        pciDeviceFile(&path, dev->name, "driver") < 0) {
-        goto remove_id;
-    }
-
-    if (!virFileLinkPointsTo(path, drvdir)) {
-        /* Xen's pciback.ko wants you to use new_slot first */
-        if (pciDriverFile(&path, driver, "new_slot") < 0) {
-            goto remove_id;
-        }
-
-        if (virFileExists(path) && virFileWriteStr(path, dev->name, 0) < 0) {
-            virReportSystemError(errno,
-                                 _("Failed to add slot for PCI device '%s' to %s"),
-                                 dev->name, driver);
-            goto remove_id;
-        }
-        dev->remove_slot = 1;
-
-        if (pciDriverFile(&path, driver, "bind") < 0) {
-            goto remove_id;
-        }
-
-        if (virFileWriteStr(path, dev->name, 0) < 0) {
-            virReportSystemError(errno,
-                                 _("Failed to bind PCI device '%s' to %s"),
-                                 dev->name, driver);
-            goto remove_id;
-        }
-        dev->unbind_from_stub = 1;
-    }
-
-remove_id:
-    /* If 'remove_id' exists, remove the device id from pci-stub's dynamic
-     * ID table so that 'drivers_probe' works below.
-     */
-    if (pciDriverFile(&path, driver, "remove_id") < 0) {
-        /* We do not remove PCI ID from pci-stub, and we cannot reprobe it */
-        if (dev->reprobe) {
-            VIR_WARN("Could not remove PCI ID '%s' from %s, and the device "
-                     "cannot be probed again.", dev->id, driver);
-        }
-        dev->reprobe = 0;
-        goto cleanup;
-    }
-
-    if (virFileExists(path) && virFileWriteStr(path, dev->id, 0) < 0) {
-        virReportSystemError(errno,
-                             _("Failed to remove PCI ID '%s' from %s"),
-                             dev->id, driver);
-
-        /* remove PCI ID from pci-stub failed, and we cannot reprobe it */
-        if (dev->reprobe) {
-            VIR_WARN("Failed to remove PCI ID '%s' from %s, and the device "
-                     "cannot be probed again.", dev->id, driver);
-        }
-        dev->reprobe = 0;
-        goto cleanup;
-    }
-
-    result = 0;
-
-cleanup:
-    VIR_FREE(drvdir);
-    VIR_FREE(path);
-
-    if (result < 0) {
-        pciUnbindDeviceFromStub(dev, driver);
-    }
-
-    return result;
-}
-
-int
-pciDettachDevice(pciDevice *dev,
-                 pciDeviceList *activeDevs,
-                 pciDeviceList *inactiveDevs)
-{
-    const char *driver = pciFindStubDriver();
-    if (!driver) {
-        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR, "%s",
-                       _("cannot find any PCI stub module"));
-        return -1;
-    }
-
-    if (activeDevs && pciDeviceListFind(activeDevs, dev)) {
-        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
-                       _("Not detaching active device %s"), dev->name);
-        return -1;
-    }
-
-    if (pciBindDeviceToStub(dev, driver) < 0)
-        return -1;
-
-    /* Add the dev into list inactiveDevs */
-    if (inactiveDevs && !pciDeviceListFind(inactiveDevs, dev)) {
-        if (pciDeviceListAdd(inactiveDevs, dev) < 0)
-            return -1;
-    }
-
-    return 0;
-}
-
-int
-pciReAttachDevice(pciDevice *dev,
-                  pciDeviceList *activeDevs,
-                  pciDeviceList *inactiveDevs)
-{
-    const char *driver = pciFindStubDriver();
-    if (!driver) {
-        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR, "%s",
-                       _("cannot find any PCI stub module"));
-        return -1;
-    }
-
-    if (activeDevs && pciDeviceListFind(activeDevs, dev)) {
-        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
-                       _("Not reattaching active device %s"), dev->name);
-        return -1;
-    }
-
-    if (pciUnbindDeviceFromStub(dev, driver) < 0)
-        return -1;
-
-    /* Steal the dev from list inactiveDevs */
-    if (inactiveDevs)
-        pciDeviceListSteal(inactiveDevs, dev);
-
-    return 0;
-}
-
-/* Certain hypervisors (like qemu/kvm) map the PCI bar(s) on
- * the host when doing device passthrough.  This can lead to a race
- * condition where the hypervisor is still cleaning up the device while
- * libvirt is trying to re-attach it to the host device driver.  To avoid
- * this situation, we look through /proc/iomem, and if the hypervisor is
- * still holding onto the bar (denoted by the string in the matcher variable),
- * then we can wait around a bit for that to clear up.
- *
- * A typical /proc/iomem looks like this (snipped for brevity):
- * 00010000-0008efff : System RAM
- * 0008f000-0008ffff : reserved
- * ...
- * 00100000-cc9fcfff : System RAM
- *   00200000-00483d3b : Kernel code
- *   00483d3c-005c88df : Kernel data
- * cc9fd000-ccc71fff : ACPI Non-volatile Storage
- * ...
- * d0200000-d02fffff : PCI Bus #05
- *   d0200000-d021ffff : 0000:05:00.0
- *     d0200000-d021ffff : e1000e
- *   d0220000-d023ffff : 0000:05:00.0
- *     d0220000-d023ffff : e1000e
- * ...
- * f0000000-f0003fff : 0000:00:1b.0
- *   f0000000-f0003fff : kvm_assigned_device
- *
- * Returns 0 if we are clear to continue, and 1 if the hypervisor is still
- * holding onto the resource.
- */
-int
-pciWaitForDeviceCleanup(pciDevice *dev, const char *matcher)
-{
-    FILE *fp;
-    char line[160];
-    char *tmp;
-    unsigned long long start, end;
-    unsigned int domain, bus, slot, function;
-    int in_matching_device;
-    int ret;
-    size_t match_depth;
-
-    fp = fopen("/proc/iomem", "r");
-    if (!fp) {
-        /* If we failed to open iomem, we just basically ignore the error.  The
-         * unbind might succeed anyway, and besides, it's very likely we have
-         * no way to report the error
-         */
-        VIR_DEBUG("Failed to open /proc/iomem, trying to continue anyway");
-        return 0;
-    }
-
-    ret = 0;
-    in_matching_device = 0;
-    match_depth = 0;
-    while (fgets(line, sizeof(line), fp) != 0) {
-        /* the logic here is a bit confusing.  For each line, we look to
-         * see if it matches the domain:bus:slot.function we were given.
-         * If this line matches the DBSF, then any subsequent lines indented
-         * by 2 spaces are the PCI regions for this device.  It's also
-         * possible that none of the PCI regions are currently mapped, in
-         * which case we have no indented regions.  This code handles all
-         * of these situations
-         */
-        if (in_matching_device && (strspn(line, " ") == (match_depth + 2))) {
-            /* expected format: <start>-<end> : <suffix> */
-            if (/* start */
-                virStrToLong_ull(line, &tmp, 16, &start) < 0 || *tmp != '-' ||
-                /* end */
-                virStrToLong_ull(tmp + 1, &tmp, 16, &end) < 0 ||
-                (tmp = STRSKIP(tmp, " : ")) == NULL)
-                continue;
-
-            if (STRPREFIX(tmp, matcher)) {
-                ret = 1;
-                break;
-            }
-        }
-        else {
-            in_matching_device = 0;
-
-            /* expected format: <start>-<end> : <domain>:<bus>:<slot>.<function> */
-            if (/* start */
-                virStrToLong_ull(line, &tmp, 16, &start) < 0 || *tmp != '-' ||
-                /* end */
-                virStrToLong_ull(tmp + 1, &tmp, 16, &end) < 0 ||
-                (tmp = STRSKIP(tmp, " : ")) == NULL ||
-                /* domain */
-                virStrToLong_ui(tmp, &tmp, 16, &domain) < 0 || *tmp != ':' ||
-                /* bus */
-                virStrToLong_ui(tmp + 1, &tmp, 16, &bus) < 0 || *tmp != ':' ||
-                /* slot */
-                virStrToLong_ui(tmp + 1, &tmp, 16, &slot) < 0 || *tmp != '.' ||
-                /* function */
-                virStrToLong_ui(tmp + 1, &tmp, 16, &function) < 0 || *tmp != '\n')
-                continue;
-
-            if (domain != dev->domain || bus != dev->bus || slot != dev->slot ||
-                function != dev->function)
-                continue;
-            in_matching_device = 1;
-            match_depth = strspn(line, " ");
-        }
-    }
-
-    VIR_FORCE_FCLOSE(fp);
-
-    return ret;
-}
-
-static char *
-pciReadDeviceID(pciDevice *dev, const char *id_name)
-{
-    char *path = NULL;
-    char *id_str;
-
-    if (pciDeviceFile(&path, dev->name, id_name) < 0) {
-        return NULL;
-    }
-
-    /* ID string is '0xNNNN\n' ... i.e. 7 bytes */
-    if (virFileReadAll(path, 7, &id_str) < 0) {
-        VIR_FREE(path);
-        return NULL;
-    }
-
-    VIR_FREE(path);
-
-    /* Check for 0x suffix */
-    if (id_str[0] != '0' || id_str[1] != 'x') {
-        VIR_FREE(id_str);
-        return NULL;
-    }
-
-    /* Chop off the newline; we know the string is 7 bytes */
-    id_str[6] = '\0';
-
-    return id_str;
-}
-
-int
-pciGetDeviceAddrString(unsigned domain,
-                       unsigned bus,
-                       unsigned slot,
-                       unsigned function,
-                       char **pciConfigAddr)
-{
-    pciDevice *dev = NULL;
-    int ret = -1;
-
-    dev = pciGetDevice(domain, bus, slot, function);
-    if (dev != NULL) {
-        if ((*pciConfigAddr = strdup(dev->name)) == NULL) {
-            virReportOOMError();
-            goto cleanup;
-        }
-        ret = 0;
-    }
-
-cleanup:
-    pciFreeDevice(dev);
-    return ret;
-}
-
-pciDevice *
-pciGetDevice(unsigned domain,
-             unsigned bus,
-             unsigned slot,
-             unsigned function)
-{
-    pciDevice *dev;
-    char *vendor = NULL;
-    char *product = NULL;
-
-    if (VIR_ALLOC(dev) < 0) {
-        virReportOOMError();
-        return NULL;
-    }
-
-    dev->domain   = domain;
-    dev->bus      = bus;
-    dev->slot     = slot;
-    dev->function = function;
-
-    if (snprintf(dev->name, sizeof(dev->name), "%.4x:%.2x:%.2x.%.1x",
-                 dev->domain, dev->bus, dev->slot,
-                 dev->function) >= sizeof(dev->name)) {
-        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
-                       _("dev->name buffer overflow: %.4x:%.2x:%.2x.%.1x"),
-                       dev->domain, dev->bus, dev->slot, dev->function);
-        goto error;
-    }
-    if (virAsprintf(&dev->path, PCI_SYSFS "devices/%s/config",
-                    dev->name) < 0) {
-        virReportOOMError();
-        goto error;
-    }
-
-    if (access(dev->path, F_OK) != 0) {
-        virReportSystemError(errno,
-                             _("Device %s not found: could not access %s"),
-                             dev->name, dev->path);
-        goto error;
-    }
-
-    vendor  = pciReadDeviceID(dev, "vendor");
-    product = pciReadDeviceID(dev, "device");
-
-    if (!vendor || !product) {
-        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
-                       _("Failed to read product/vendor ID for %s"),
-                       dev->name);
-        goto error;
-    }
-
-    /* strings contain '0x' prefix */
-    if (snprintf(dev->id, sizeof(dev->id), "%s %s", &vendor[2],
-                 &product[2]) >= sizeof(dev->id)) {
-        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
-                       _("dev->id buffer overflow: %s %s"),
-                       &vendor[2], &product[2]);
-        goto error;
-    }
-
-    VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: initialized", dev->id, dev->name);
-
-cleanup:
-    VIR_FREE(product);
-    VIR_FREE(vendor);
-    return dev;
-
-error:
-    pciFreeDevice(dev);
-    dev = NULL;
-    goto cleanup;
-}
-
-void
-pciFreeDevice(pciDevice *dev)
-{
-    if (!dev)
-        return;
-    VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: freeing", dev->id, dev->name);
-    VIR_FREE(dev->path);
-    VIR_FREE(dev);
-}
-
-const char *
-pciDeviceGetName(pciDevice *dev)
-{
-    return dev->name;
-}
-
-void pciDeviceSetManaged(pciDevice *dev, unsigned managed)
-{
-    dev->managed = !!managed;
-}
-
-unsigned pciDeviceGetManaged(pciDevice *dev)
-{
-    return dev->managed;
-}
-
-unsigned
-pciDeviceGetUnbindFromStub(pciDevice *dev)
-{
-    return dev->unbind_from_stub;
-}
-
-void
-pciDeviceSetUnbindFromStub(pciDevice *dev, unsigned unbind)
-{
-    dev->unbind_from_stub = !!unbind;
-}
-
-unsigned
-pciDeviceGetRemoveSlot(pciDevice *dev)
-{
-    return dev->remove_slot;
-}
-
-void
-pciDeviceSetRemoveSlot(pciDevice *dev, unsigned remove_slot)
-{
-    dev->remove_slot = !!remove_slot;
-}
-
-unsigned
-pciDeviceGetReprobe(pciDevice *dev)
-{
-    return dev->reprobe;
-}
-
-void
-pciDeviceSetReprobe(pciDevice *dev, unsigned reprobe)
-{
-    dev->reprobe = !!reprobe;
-}
-
-void
-pciDeviceSetUsedBy(pciDevice *dev, const char *name)
-{
-    dev->used_by = name;
-}
-
-const char *
-pciDeviceGetUsedBy(pciDevice *dev)
-{
-    return dev->used_by;
-}
-
-void pciDeviceReAttachInit(pciDevice *pci)
-{
-    pci->unbind_from_stub = 1;
-    pci->remove_slot = 1;
-    pci->reprobe = 1;
-}
-
-
-pciDeviceList *
-pciDeviceListNew(void)
-{
-    pciDeviceList *list;
-
-    if (VIR_ALLOC(list) < 0) {
-        virReportOOMError();
-        return NULL;
-    }
-
-    return list;
-}
-
-void
-pciDeviceListFree(pciDeviceList *list)
-{
-    int i;
-
-    if (!list)
-        return;
-
-    for (i = 0; i < list->count; i++) {
-        pciFreeDevice(list->devs[i]);
-        list->devs[i] = NULL;
-    }
-
-    list->count = 0;
-    VIR_FREE(list->devs);
-    VIR_FREE(list);
-}
-
-int
-pciDeviceListAdd(pciDeviceList *list,
-                 pciDevice *dev)
-{
-    if (pciDeviceListFind(list, dev)) {
-        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
-                       _("Device %s is already in use"), dev->name);
-        return -1;
-    }
-
-    if (VIR_REALLOC_N(list->devs, list->count+1) < 0) {
-        virReportOOMError();
-        return -1;
-    }
-
-    list->devs[list->count++] = dev;
-
-    return 0;
-}
-
-pciDevice *
-pciDeviceListGet(pciDeviceList *list,
-                 int idx)
-{
-    if (idx >= list->count)
-        return NULL;
-    if (idx < 0)
-        return NULL;
-
-    return list->devs[idx];
-}
-
-int
-pciDeviceListCount(pciDeviceList *list)
-{
-    return list->count;
-}
-
-pciDevice *
-pciDeviceListStealIndex(pciDeviceList *list,
-                        int idx)
-{
-    pciDevice *ret;
-
-    if (idx < 0 || idx >= list->count)
-        return NULL;
-
-    ret = list->devs[idx];
-
-    if (idx != --list->count) {
-        memmove(&list->devs[idx],
-                &list->devs[idx + 1],
-                sizeof(*list->devs) * (list->count - idx));
-    }
-
-    if (VIR_REALLOC_N(list->devs, list->count) < 0) {
-        ; /* not fatal */
-    }
-
-    return ret;
-}
-
-pciDevice *
-pciDeviceListSteal(pciDeviceList *list,
-                   pciDevice *dev)
-{
-    return pciDeviceListStealIndex(list, pciDeviceListFindIndex(list, dev));
-}
-
-void
-pciDeviceListDel(pciDeviceList *list,
-                 pciDevice *dev)
-{
-    pciDevice *ret = pciDeviceListSteal(list, dev);
-    if (ret)
-        pciFreeDevice(ret);
-}
-
-int
-pciDeviceListFindIndex(pciDeviceList *list, pciDevice *dev)
-{
-    int i;
-
-    for (i = 0; i < list->count; i++)
-        if (list->devs[i]->domain   == dev->domain &&
-            list->devs[i]->bus      == dev->bus    &&
-            list->devs[i]->slot     == dev->slot   &&
-            list->devs[i]->function == dev->function)
-            return i;
-    return -1;
-}
-
-pciDevice *
-pciDeviceListFind(pciDeviceList *list, pciDevice *dev)
-{
-    int i;
-
-    if ((i = pciDeviceListFindIndex(list, dev)) >= 0)
-        return list->devs[i];
-    else
-        return NULL;
-}
-
-
-int pciDeviceFileIterate(pciDevice *dev,
-                         pciDeviceFileActor actor,
-                         void *opaque)
-{
-    char *pcidir = NULL;
-    char *file = NULL;
-    DIR *dir = NULL;
-    int ret = -1;
-    struct dirent *ent;
-
-    if (virAsprintf(&pcidir, "/sys/bus/pci/devices/%04x:%02x:%02x.%x",
-                    dev->domain, dev->bus, dev->slot, dev->function) < 0) {
-        virReportOOMError();
-        goto cleanup;
-    }
-
-    if (!(dir = opendir(pcidir))) {
-        virReportSystemError(errno,
-                             _("cannot open %s"), pcidir);
-        goto cleanup;
-    }
-
-    while ((ent = readdir(dir)) != NULL) {
-        /* Device assignment requires:
-         *   $PCIDIR/config, $PCIDIR/resource, $PCIDIR/resourceNNN,
-         *   $PCIDIR/rom, $PCIDIR/reset
-         */
-        if (STREQ(ent->d_name, "config") ||
-            STRPREFIX(ent->d_name, "resource") ||
-            STREQ(ent->d_name, "rom") ||
-            STREQ(ent->d_name, "reset")) {
-            if (virAsprintf(&file, "%s/%s", pcidir, ent->d_name) < 0) {
-                virReportOOMError();
-                goto cleanup;
-            }
-            if ((actor)(dev, file, opaque) < 0)
-                goto cleanup;
-
-            VIR_FREE(file);
-        }
-    }
-
-    ret = 0;
-
-cleanup:
-    if (dir)
-        closedir(dir);
-    VIR_FREE(file);
-    VIR_FREE(pcidir);
-    return ret;
-}
-
-static int
-pciDeviceDownstreamLacksACS(pciDevice *dev)
-{
-    uint16_t flags;
-    uint16_t ctrl;
-    unsigned int pos;
-    int fd;
-    int ret = 0;
-
-    if ((fd = pciConfigOpen(dev, true)) < 0)
-        return -1;
-
-    if (pciInitDevice(dev, fd) < 0) {
-        ret = -1;
-        goto cleanup;
-    }
-
-    pos = dev->pcie_cap_pos;
-    if (!pos || pciRead16(dev, fd, PCI_CLASS_DEVICE) != PCI_CLASS_BRIDGE_PCI)
-        goto cleanup;
-
-    flags = pciRead16(dev, fd, pos + PCI_EXP_FLAGS);
-    if (((flags & PCI_EXP_FLAGS_TYPE) >> 4) != PCI_EXP_TYPE_DOWNSTREAM)
-        goto cleanup;
-
-    pos = pciFindExtendedCapabilityOffset(dev, fd, PCI_EXT_CAP_ID_ACS);
-    if (!pos) {
-        VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: downstream port lacks ACS", dev->id, dev->name);
-        ret = 1;
-        goto cleanup;
-    }
-
-    ctrl = pciRead16(dev, fd, pos + PCI_EXT_ACS_CTRL);
-    if ((ctrl & PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_ENABLED) != PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_ENABLED) {
-        VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: downstream port has ACS disabled",
-                  dev->id, dev->name);
-        ret = 1;
-        goto cleanup;
-    }
-
-cleanup:
-    pciConfigClose(dev, fd);
-    return ret;
-}
-
-static int
-pciDeviceIsBehindSwitchLackingACS(pciDevice *dev)
-{
-    pciDevice *parent;
-
-    if (pciGetParentDevice(dev, &parent) < 0)
-        return -1;
-    if (!parent) {
-        /* if we have no parent, and this is the root bus, ACS doesn't come
-         * into play since devices on the root bus can't P2P without going
-         * through the root IOMMU.
-         */
-        if (dev->bus == 0)
-            return 0;
-        else {
-            virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
-                           _("Failed to find parent device for %s"),
-                           dev->name);
-            return -1;
-        }
-    }
-
-    /* XXX we should rather fail when we can't find device's parent and
-     * stop the loop when we get to root instead of just stopping when no
-     * parent can be found
-     */
-    do {
-        pciDevice *tmp;
-        int acs;
-        int ret;
-
-        acs = pciDeviceDownstreamLacksACS(parent);
-
-        if (acs) {
-            pciFreeDevice(parent);
-            if (acs < 0)
-                return -1;
-            else
-                return 1;
-        }
-
-        tmp = parent;
-        ret = pciGetParentDevice(parent, &parent);
-        pciFreeDevice(tmp);
-        if (ret < 0)
-            return -1;
-    } while (parent);
-
-    return 0;
-}
-
-int pciDeviceIsAssignable(pciDevice *dev,
-                          int strict_acs_check)
-{
-    int ret;
-
-    /* XXX This could be a great place to actually check that a non-managed
-     * device isn't in use, e.g. by checking that device is either un-bound
-     * or bound to a stub driver.
-     */
-
-    ret = pciDeviceIsBehindSwitchLackingACS(dev);
-    if (ret < 0)
-        return 0;
-
-    if (ret) {
-        if (!strict_acs_check) {
-            VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: strict ACS check disabled; device assignment allowed",
-                      dev->id, dev->name);
-        } else {
-            virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
-                           _("Device %s is behind a switch lacking ACS and "
-                             "cannot be assigned"),
-                           dev->name);
-            return 0;
-        }
-    }
-
-    return 1;
-}
-
-#ifdef __linux__
-
-/*
- * returns true if equal
- */
-static bool
-pciConfigAddressEqual(struct pci_config_address *bdf1,
-                      struct pci_config_address *bdf2)
-{
-    return ((bdf1->domain == bdf2->domain) &&
-            (bdf1->bus == bdf2->bus) &&
-            (bdf1->slot == bdf2->slot) &&
-            (bdf1->function == bdf2->function));
-}
-
-static int
-logStrToLong_ui(char const *s,
-                char **end_ptr,
-                int base,
-                unsigned int *result)
-{
-    int ret = 0;
-
-    ret = virStrToLong_ui(s, end_ptr, base, result);
-    if (ret != 0) {
-        VIR_ERROR(_("Failed to convert '%s' to unsigned int"), s);
-    } else {
-        VIR_DEBUG("Converted '%s' to unsigned int %u", s, *result);
-    }
-
-    return ret;
-}
-
-static int
-pciParsePciConfigAddress(char *address,
-                         struct pci_config_address *bdf)
-{
-    char *p = NULL;
-    int ret = -1;
-
-    if ((address == NULL) || (logStrToLong_ui(address, &p, 16,
-                                              &bdf->domain) == -1)) {
-        goto out;
-    }
-
-    if ((p == NULL) || (logStrToLong_ui(p+1, &p, 16,
-                                        &bdf->bus) == -1)) {
-        goto out;
-    }
-
-    if ((p == NULL) || (logStrToLong_ui(p+1, &p, 16,
-                                        &bdf->slot) == -1)) {
-        goto out;
-    }
-
-    if ((p == NULL) || (logStrToLong_ui(p+1, &p, 16,
-                                        &bdf->function) == -1)) {
-        goto out;
-    }
-
-    ret = 0;
-
-out:
-    return ret;
-}
-
-static int
-pciGetPciConfigAddressFromSysfsDeviceLink(const char *device_link,
-                                          struct pci_config_address **bdf)
-{
-    char *config_address = NULL;
-    char *device_path = NULL;
-    char errbuf[64];
-    int ret = -1;
-
-    VIR_DEBUG("Attempting to resolve device path from device link '%s'",
-              device_link);
-
-    if (!virFileExists(device_link)) {
-        VIR_DEBUG("sysfs_path '%s' does not exist", device_link);
-        return ret;
-    }
-
-    device_path = canonicalize_file_name(device_link);
-    if (device_path == NULL) {
-        memset(errbuf, '\0', sizeof(errbuf));
-        virReportSystemError(errno,
-                             _("Failed to resolve device link '%s'"),
-                             device_link);
-        return ret;
-    }
-
-    config_address = basename(device_path);
-    if (VIR_ALLOC(*bdf) != 0) {
-        virReportOOMError();
-        goto out;
-    }
-
-    if (pciParsePciConfigAddress(config_address, *bdf) != 0) {
-        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
-                       _("Failed to parse PCI config address '%s'"),
-                       config_address);
-        VIR_FREE(*bdf);
-        goto out;
-    }
-
-    VIR_DEBUG("pci_config_address %.4x:%.2x:%.2x.%.1x",
-              (*bdf)->domain,
-              (*bdf)->bus,
-              (*bdf)->slot,
-              (*bdf)->function);
-
-    ret = 0;
-
-out:
-    VIR_FREE(device_path);
-
-    return ret;
-}
-
-/*
- * Returns Physical function given a virtual function
- */
-int
-pciGetPhysicalFunction(const char *vf_sysfs_path,
-                       struct pci_config_address **physical_function)
-{
-    int ret = -1;
-    char *device_link = NULL;
-
-    VIR_DEBUG("Attempting to get SR IOV physical function for device "
-              "with sysfs path '%s'", vf_sysfs_path);
-
-    if (virBuildPath(&device_link, vf_sysfs_path, "physfn") == -1) {
-        virReportOOMError();
-        return ret;
-    } else {
-        ret = pciGetPciConfigAddressFromSysfsDeviceLink(device_link,
-                                                        physical_function);
-    }
-
-    VIR_FREE(device_link);
-
-    return ret;
-}
-
-/*
- * Returns virtual functions of a physical function
- */
-int
-pciGetVirtualFunctions(const char *sysfs_path,
-                       struct pci_config_address ***virtual_functions,
-                       unsigned int *num_virtual_functions)
-{
-    int ret = -1;
-    DIR *dir = NULL;
-    struct dirent *entry = NULL;
-    char *device_link = NULL;
-    char errbuf[64];
-
-    VIR_DEBUG("Attempting to get SR IOV virtual functions for device"
-              "with sysfs path '%s'", sysfs_path);
-
-    dir = opendir(sysfs_path);
-    if (dir == NULL) {
-        memset(errbuf, '\0', sizeof(errbuf));
-        virReportSystemError(errno,
-                             _("Failed to open dir '%s'"),
-                             sysfs_path);
-        return ret;
-    }
-
-    *virtual_functions = NULL;
-    *num_virtual_functions = 0;
-    while ((entry = readdir(dir))) {
-        if (STRPREFIX(entry->d_name, "virtfn")) {
-
-            if (virBuildPath(&device_link, sysfs_path, entry->d_name) == -1) {
-                virReportOOMError();
-                goto out;
-            }
-
-            VIR_DEBUG("Number of virtual functions: %d",
-                      *num_virtual_functions);
-            if (VIR_REALLOC_N(*virtual_functions,
-                (*num_virtual_functions) + 1) != 0) {
-                virReportOOMError();
-                VIR_FREE(device_link);
-                goto out;
-            }
-
-            if (pciGetPciConfigAddressFromSysfsDeviceLink(device_link,
-                &((*virtual_functions)[*num_virtual_functions])) !=
-                SRIOV_FOUND) {
-                /* We should not get back SRIOV_NOT_FOUND in this
-                 * case, so if we do, it's an error. */
-                virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
-                               _("Failed to get SR IOV function from device "
-                               "link '%s'"), device_link);
-                VIR_FREE(device_link);
-                goto out;
-            } else {
-                (*num_virtual_functions)++;
-            }
-            VIR_FREE(device_link);
-        }
-    }
-
-    ret = 0;
-
-out:
-    if (dir)
-        closedir(dir);
-
-    return ret;
-}
-
-/*
- * Returns 1 if vf device is a virtual function, 0 if not, -1 on error
- */
-int
-pciDeviceIsVirtualFunction(const char *vf_sysfs_device_link)
-{
-    char *vf_sysfs_physfn_link = NULL;
-    int ret = -1;
-
-    if (virAsprintf(&vf_sysfs_physfn_link, "%s/physfn",
-        vf_sysfs_device_link) < 0) {
-        virReportOOMError();
-        return ret;
-    }
-
-    ret = virFileExists(vf_sysfs_physfn_link);
-
-    VIR_FREE(vf_sysfs_physfn_link);
-
-    return ret;
-}
-
-/*
- * Returns the sriov virtual function index of vf given its pf
- */
-int
-pciGetVirtualFunctionIndex(const char *pf_sysfs_device_link,
-                           const char *vf_sysfs_device_link,
-                           int *vf_index)
-{
-    int ret = -1, i;
-    unsigned int num_virt_fns = 0;
-    struct pci_config_address *vf_bdf = NULL;
-    struct pci_config_address **virt_fns = NULL;
-
-    if (pciGetPciConfigAddressFromSysfsDeviceLink(vf_sysfs_device_link,
-        &vf_bdf) < 0)
-        return ret;
-
-    if (pciGetVirtualFunctions(pf_sysfs_device_link, &virt_fns,
-        &num_virt_fns) < 0) {
-        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
-                       _("Error getting physical function's '%s' "
-                      "virtual_functions"), pf_sysfs_device_link);
-        goto out;
-    }
-
-    for (i = 0; i < num_virt_fns; i++) {
-         if (pciConfigAddressEqual(vf_bdf, virt_fns[i])) {
-             *vf_index = i;
-             ret = 0;
-             break;
-         }
-    }
-
-out:
-
-    /* free virtual functions */
-    for (i = 0; i < num_virt_fns; i++)
-         VIR_FREE(virt_fns[i]);
-
-    VIR_FREE(virt_fns);
-    VIR_FREE(vf_bdf);
-
-    return ret;
-}
-
-/*
- * Returns a path to the PCI sysfs file given the BDF of the PCI function
- */
-
-int
-pciSysfsFile(char *pciDeviceName, char **pci_sysfs_device_link)
-{
-    if (virAsprintf(pci_sysfs_device_link, PCI_SYSFS "devices/%s",
-                    pciDeviceName) < 0) {
-        virReportOOMError();
-        return -1;
-    }
-
-    return 0;
-}
-
-int
-pciConfigAddressToSysfsFile(struct pci_config_address *dev,
-                            char **pci_sysfs_device_link)
-{
-    if (virAsprintf(pci_sysfs_device_link,
-                    PCI_SYSFS "devices/%04x:%02x:%02x.%x", dev->domain,
-                    dev->bus, dev->slot, dev->function) < 0) {
-        virReportOOMError();
-        return -1;
-    }
-
-    return 0;
-}
-
-/*
- * Returns the network device name of a pci device
- */
-int
-pciDeviceNetName(char *device_link_sysfs_path, char **netname)
-{
-     char *pcidev_sysfs_net_path = NULL;
-     int ret = -1;
-     DIR *dir = NULL;
-     struct dirent *entry = NULL;
-
-     if (virBuildPath(&pcidev_sysfs_net_path, device_link_sysfs_path,
-         "net") == -1) {
-         virReportOOMError();
-         return -1;
-     }
-
-     dir = opendir(pcidev_sysfs_net_path);
-     if (dir == NULL)
-         goto out;
-
-     while ((entry = readdir(dir))) {
-            if (STREQ(entry->d_name, ".") ||
-                STREQ(entry->d_name, ".."))
-                continue;
-
-            /* Assume a single directory entry */
-            *netname = strdup(entry->d_name);
-            if (!*netname)
-                virReportOOMError();
-            else
-                ret = 0;
-            break;
-     }
-
-     closedir(dir);
-
-out:
-     VIR_FREE(pcidev_sysfs_net_path);
-
-     return ret;
-}
-
-int
-pciDeviceGetVirtualFunctionInfo(const char *vf_sysfs_device_path,
-                                char **pfname, int *vf_index)
-{
-    struct pci_config_address *pf_config_address = NULL;
-    char *pf_sysfs_device_path = NULL;
-    int ret = -1;
-
-    if (pciGetPhysicalFunction(vf_sysfs_device_path, &pf_config_address) < 0)
-        return ret;
-
-    if (pciConfigAddressToSysfsFile(pf_config_address,
-                                    &pf_sysfs_device_path) < 0) {
-
-        VIR_FREE(pf_config_address);
-        return ret;
-    }
-
-    if (pciGetVirtualFunctionIndex(pf_sysfs_device_path, vf_sysfs_device_path,
-        vf_index) < 0)
-        goto cleanup;
-
-    ret = pciDeviceNetName(pf_sysfs_device_path, pfname);
-
-cleanup:
-    VIR_FREE(pf_config_address);
-    VIR_FREE(pf_sysfs_device_path);
-
-    return ret;
-}
-
-#else
-static const char *unsupported = N_("not supported on non-linux platforms");
-
-int
-pciGetPhysicalFunction(const char *vf_sysfs_path ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED,
-              struct pci_config_address **physical_function ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED)
-{
-    virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR, "%s", _(unsupported));
-    return -1;
-}
-
-int
-pciGetVirtualFunctions(const char *sysfs_path ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED,
-             struct pci_config_address ***virtual_functions ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED,
-             unsigned int *num_virtual_functions ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED)
-{
-    virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR, "%s", _(unsupported));
-    return -1;
-}
-
-int
-pciDeviceIsVirtualFunction(const char *vf_sysfs_device_link ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED)
-{
-    virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR, "%s", _(unsupported));
-    return -1;
-}
-
-int
-pciGetVirtualFunctionIndex(const char *pf_sysfs_device_link ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED,
-                           const char *vf_sysfs_device_link ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED,
-                           int *vf_index ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED)
-{
-    virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR, "%s", _(unsupported));
-    return -1;
-
-}
-
-int
-pciConfigAddressToSysfsFile(struct pci_config_address *dev ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED,
-                            char **pci_sysfs_device_link ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED)
-{
-    virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR, "%s", _(unsupported));
-    return -1;
-}
-
-int
-pciDeviceNetName(char *device_link_sysfs_path ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED,
-                 char **netname ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED)
-{
-    virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR, "%s", _(unsupported));
-    return -1;
-}
-
-int
-pciDeviceGetVirtualFunctionInfo(const char *vf_sysfs_device_path ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED,
-                                char **pfname ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED,
-                                int *vf_index ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED)
-{
-    virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR, "%s", _(unsupported));
-    return -1;
-}
-#endif /* __linux__ */
diff --git a/src/util/pci.h b/src/util/pci.h
deleted file mode 100644
index 814c24e..0000000
--- a/src/util/pci.h
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,136 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Copyright (C) 2009, 2011-2012 Red Hat, Inc.
- *
- * This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
- * modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
- * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
- * version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
- *
- * This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
- * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
- * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
- * Lesser General Public License for more details.
- *
- * You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
- * License along with this library.  If not, see
- * <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
- *
- * Authors:
- *     Mark McLoughlin <markmc redhat com>
- */
-
-#ifndef __VIR_PCI_H__
-# define __VIR_PCI_H__
-
-# include "internal.h"
-
-typedef struct _pciDevice pciDevice;
-typedef struct _pciDeviceList pciDeviceList;
-
-struct pci_config_address {
-    unsigned int domain;
-    unsigned int bus;
-    unsigned int slot;
-    unsigned int function;
-};
-
-pciDevice *pciGetDevice      (unsigned       domain,
-                              unsigned       bus,
-                              unsigned       slot,
-                              unsigned       function);
-void       pciFreeDevice     (pciDevice     *dev);
-const char *pciDeviceGetName (pciDevice     *dev);
-int        pciDettachDevice  (pciDevice     *dev,
-                              pciDeviceList *activeDevs,
-                              pciDeviceList *inactiveDevs);
-int        pciReAttachDevice (pciDevice     *dev,
-                              pciDeviceList *activeDevs,
-                              pciDeviceList *inactiveDevs);
-int        pciResetDevice    (pciDevice     *dev,
-                              pciDeviceList *activeDevs,
-                              pciDeviceList *inactiveDevs);
-void      pciDeviceSetManaged(pciDevice     *dev,
-                              unsigned       managed);
-unsigned  pciDeviceGetManaged(pciDevice     *dev);
-void      pciDeviceSetUsedBy(pciDevice     *dev,
-                             const char *used_by);
-const char *pciDeviceGetUsedBy(pciDevice   *dev);
-unsigned  pciDeviceGetUnbindFromStub(pciDevice *dev);
-void      pciDeviceSetUnbindFromStub(pciDevice     *dev,
-                                     unsigned      unbind);
-unsigned  pciDeviceGetRemoveSlot(pciDevice *dev);
-void      pciDeviceSetRemoveSlot(pciDevice     *dev,
-                                 unsigned      remove_slot);
-unsigned  pciDeviceGetReprobe(pciDevice *dev);
-void      pciDeviceSetReprobe(pciDevice     *dev,
-                              unsigned      reprobe);
-void      pciDeviceReAttachInit(pciDevice   *dev);
-
-pciDeviceList *pciDeviceListNew  (void);
-void           pciDeviceListFree (pciDeviceList *list);
-int            pciDeviceListAdd  (pciDeviceList *list,
-                                  pciDevice *dev);
-pciDevice *    pciDeviceListGet (pciDeviceList *list,
-                                 int idx);
-int            pciDeviceListCount (pciDeviceList *list);
-pciDevice *    pciDeviceListSteal (pciDeviceList *list,
-                                   pciDevice *dev);
-pciDevice *    pciDeviceListStealIndex(pciDeviceList *list,
-                                       int idx);
-void           pciDeviceListDel  (pciDeviceList *list,
-                                  pciDevice *dev);
-pciDevice *    pciDeviceListFind (pciDeviceList *list,
-                                  pciDevice *dev);
-int            pciDeviceListFindIndex(pciDeviceList *list,
-                                      pciDevice *dev);
-
-/*
- * Callback that will be invoked once for each file
- * associated with / used for PCI host device access.
- *
- * Should return 0 if successfully processed, or
- * -1 to indicate error and abort iteration
- */
-typedef int (*pciDeviceFileActor)(pciDevice *dev,
-                                  const char *path, void *opaque);
-
-int pciDeviceFileIterate(pciDevice *dev,
-                         pciDeviceFileActor actor,
-                         void *opaque);
-
-int pciDeviceIsAssignable(pciDevice *dev,
-                          int strict_acs_check);
-int pciWaitForDeviceCleanup(pciDevice *dev, const char *matcher);
-
-int pciGetPhysicalFunction(const char *sysfs_path,
-                           struct pci_config_address **phys_fn);
-
-int pciGetVirtualFunctions(const char *sysfs_path,
-                           struct pci_config_address ***virtual_functions,
-                           unsigned int *num_virtual_functions);
-
-int pciDeviceIsVirtualFunction(const char *vf_sysfs_device_link);
-
-int pciGetVirtualFunctionIndex(const char *pf_sysfs_device_link,
-                               const char *vf_sysfs_device_link,
-                               int *vf_index);
-
-int pciConfigAddressToSysfsFile(struct pci_config_address *dev,
-                                char **pci_sysfs_device_link);
-
-int pciDeviceNetName(char *device_link_sysfs_path, char **netname);
-
-int pciSysfsFile(char *pciDeviceName, char **pci_sysfs_device_link)
-    ATTRIBUTE_RETURN_CHECK;
-
-int pciGetDeviceAddrString(unsigned domain,
-                           unsigned bus,
-                           unsigned slot,
-                           unsigned function,
-                           char **pciConfigAddr)
-    ATTRIBUTE_NONNULL(5) ATTRIBUTE_RETURN_CHECK;
-
-int pciDeviceGetVirtualFunctionInfo(const char *vf_sysfs_device_path,
-                                    char **pfname, int *vf_index);
-
-#endif /* __VIR_PCI_H__ */
diff --git a/src/util/virnetdev.c b/src/util/virnetdev.c
index 88a2e4b..3ea0e39 100644
--- a/src/util/virnetdev.c
+++ b/src/util/virnetdev.c
@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@
 #include "virterror_internal.h"
 #include "vircommand.h"
 #include "viralloc.h"
-#include "pci.h"
+#include "virpci.h"
 #include "virlog.h"
 
 #include <sys/ioctl.h>
diff --git a/src/util/virnetdev.h b/src/util/virnetdev.h
index 123667c..d588e89 100644
--- a/src/util/virnetdev.h
+++ b/src/util/virnetdev.h
@@ -26,7 +26,7 @@
 # include "virsocketaddr.h"
 # include "virnetlink.h"
 # include "virmacaddr.h"
-# include "pci.h"
+# include "virpci.h"
 
 int virNetDevExists(const char *brname)
     ATTRIBUTE_NONNULL(1) ATTRIBUTE_RETURN_CHECK;
diff --git a/src/util/virpci.c b/src/util/virpci.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8875aa6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/src/util/virpci.c
@@ -0,0 +1,2285 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2009-2012 Red Hat, Inc.
+ *
+ * This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
+ * modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
+ * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
+ * version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
+ * Lesser General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
+ * License along with this library.  If not, see
+ * <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ *
+ * Authors:
+ *     Mark McLoughlin <markmc redhat com>
+ */
+
+#include <config.h>
+
+#include "virpci.h"
+
+#include <dirent.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <inttypes.h>
+#include <limits.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+
+#include "virlog.h"
+#include "viralloc.h"
+#include "vircommand.h"
+#include "virterror_internal.h"
+#include "virfile.h"
+
+#define PCI_SYSFS "/sys/bus/pci/"
+#define PCI_ID_LEN 10   /* "XXXX XXXX" */
+#define PCI_ADDR_LEN 13 /* "XXXX:XX:XX.X" */
+
+#define SRIOV_FOUND 0
+#define SRIOV_NOT_FOUND 1
+#define SRIOV_ERROR -1
+
+struct _pciDevice {
+    unsigned      domain;
+    unsigned      bus;
+    unsigned      slot;
+    unsigned      function;
+
+    char          name[PCI_ADDR_LEN]; /* domain:bus:slot.function */
+    char          id[PCI_ID_LEN];     /* product vendor */
+    char          *path;
+    const char    *used_by;           /* The domain which uses the device */
+
+    unsigned      pcie_cap_pos;
+    unsigned      pci_pm_cap_pos;
+    unsigned      has_flr : 1;
+    unsigned      has_pm_reset : 1;
+    unsigned      managed : 1;
+
+    /* used by reattach function */
+    unsigned      unbind_from_stub : 1;
+    unsigned      remove_slot : 1;
+    unsigned      reprobe : 1;
+};
+
+struct _pciDeviceList {
+    unsigned count;
+    pciDevice **devs;
+};
+
+
+/* For virReportOOMError()  and virReportSystemError() */
+#define VIR_FROM_THIS VIR_FROM_NONE
+
+/* Specifications referenced in comments:
+ *  PCI30  - PCI Local Bus Specification 3.0
+ *  PCIe20 - PCI Express Base Specification 2.0
+ *  BR12   - PCI-to-PCI Bridge Architecture Specification 1.2
+ *  PM12   - PCI Bus Power Management Interface Specification 1.2
+ *  ECN_AF - Advanced Capabilities for Conventional PCI ECN
+ */
+
+/* Type 0 config space header length; PCI30 Section 6.1 Configuration Space Organization */
+#define PCI_CONF_LEN            0x100
+#define PCI_CONF_HEADER_LEN     0x40
+
+/* PCI30 6.2.1 */
+#define PCI_HEADER_TYPE         0x0e    /* Header type */
+#define PCI_HEADER_TYPE_BRIDGE 0x1
+#define PCI_HEADER_TYPE_MASK   0x7f
+#define PCI_HEADER_TYPE_MULTI  0x80
+
+/* PCI30 6.2.1  Device Identification */
+#define PCI_CLASS_DEVICE        0x0a    /* Device class */
+
+/* Class Code for bridge; PCI30 D.7  Base Class 06h */
+#define PCI_CLASS_BRIDGE_PCI    0x0604
+
+/* PCI30 6.2.3  Device Status */
+#define PCI_STATUS              0x06    /* 16 bits */
+#define PCI_STATUS_CAP_LIST    0x10    /* Support Capability List */
+
+/* PCI30 6.7  Capabilities List */
+#define PCI_CAPABILITY_LIST     0x34    /* Offset of first capability list entry */
+
+/* PM12 3.2.1  Capability Identifier */
+#define PCI_CAP_ID_PM           0x01    /* Power Management */
+/* PCI30 H Capability IDs */
+#define PCI_CAP_ID_EXP          0x10    /* PCI Express */
+/* ECN_AF 6.x.1.1  Capability ID for AF */
+#define PCI_CAP_ID_AF           0x13    /* Advanced Features */
+
+/* PCIe20 7.8.3  Device Capabilities Register (Offset 04h) */
+#define PCI_EXP_DEVCAP          0x4     /* Device capabilities */
+#define PCI_EXP_DEVCAP_FLR     (1<<28) /* Function Level Reset */
+
+/* Header type 1 BR12 3.2 PCI-to-PCI Bridge Configuration Space Header Format */
+#define PCI_PRIMARY_BUS         0x18    /* BR12 3.2.5.2 Primary bus number */
+#define PCI_SECONDARY_BUS       0x19    /* BR12 3.2.5.3 Secondary bus number */
+#define PCI_SUBORDINATE_BUS     0x1a    /* BR12 3.2.5.4 Highest bus number behind the bridge */
+#define PCI_BRIDGE_CONTROL      0x3e
+/* BR12 3.2.5.18  Bridge Control Register */
+#define PCI_BRIDGE_CTL_RESET   0x40    /* Secondary bus reset */
+
+/* PM12 3.2.4  Power Management Control/Status (Offset = 4) */
+#define PCI_PM_CTRL                4    /* PM control and status register */
+#define PCI_PM_CTRL_STATE_MASK    0x3  /* Current power state (D0 to D3) */
+#define PCI_PM_CTRL_STATE_D0      0x0  /* D0 state */
+#define PCI_PM_CTRL_STATE_D3hot   0x3  /* D3 state */
+#define PCI_PM_CTRL_NO_SOFT_RESET 0x8  /* No reset for D3hot->D0 */
+
+/* ECN_AF 6.x.1  Advanced Features Capability Structure */
+#define PCI_AF_CAP              0x3     /* Advanced features capabilities */
+#define PCI_AF_CAP_FLR         0x2     /* Function Level Reset */
+
+#define PCI_EXP_FLAGS           0x2
+#define PCI_EXP_FLAGS_TYPE      0x00f0
+#define PCI_EXP_TYPE_DOWNSTREAM 0x6
+
+#define PCI_EXT_CAP_BASE          0x100
+#define PCI_EXT_CAP_LIMIT         0x1000
+#define PCI_EXT_CAP_ID_MASK       0x0000ffff
+#define PCI_EXT_CAP_OFFSET_SHIFT  20
+#define PCI_EXT_CAP_OFFSET_MASK   0x00000ffc
+
+#define PCI_EXT_CAP_ID_ACS      0x000d
+#define PCI_EXT_ACS_CTRL        0x06
+
+#define PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_SV      0x01
+#define PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_RR      0x04
+#define PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_CR      0x08
+#define PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_UF      0x10
+#define PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_ENABLED (PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_SV | \
+                                 PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_RR | \
+                                 PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_CR | \
+                                 PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_UF)
+
+static int
+pciConfigOpen(pciDevice *dev, bool fatal)
+{
+    int fd;
+
+    fd = open(dev->path, O_RDWR);
+
+    if (fd < 0) {
+        if (fatal) {
+            virReportSystemError(errno,
+                                 _("Failed to open config space file '%s'"),
+                                 dev->path);
+        } else {
+            char ebuf[1024];
+            VIR_WARN("Failed to open config space file '%s': %s",
+                     dev->path, virStrerror(errno, ebuf, sizeof(ebuf)));
+        }
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: opened %s", dev->id, dev->name, dev->path);
+    return fd;
+}
+
+static void
+pciConfigClose(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd)
+{
+    if (VIR_CLOSE(cfgfd) < 0) {
+        char ebuf[1024];
+        VIR_WARN("Failed to close config space file '%s': %s",
+                 dev->path, virStrerror(errno, ebuf, sizeof(ebuf)));
+    }
+}
+
+
+static int
+pciRead(pciDevice *dev,
+        int cfgfd,
+        unsigned pos,
+        uint8_t *buf,
+        unsigned buflen)
+{
+    memset(buf, 0, buflen);
+
+    if (lseek(cfgfd, pos, SEEK_SET) != pos ||
+        saferead(cfgfd, buf, buflen) != buflen) {
+        char ebuf[1024];
+        VIR_WARN("Failed to read from '%s' : %s", dev->path,
+                 virStrerror(errno, ebuf, sizeof(ebuf)));
+        return -1;
+    }
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static uint8_t
+pciRead8(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd, unsigned pos)
+{
+    uint8_t buf;
+    pciRead(dev, cfgfd, pos, &buf, sizeof(buf));
+    return buf;
+}
+
+static uint16_t
+pciRead16(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd, unsigned pos)
+{
+    uint8_t buf[2];
+    pciRead(dev, cfgfd, pos, &buf[0], sizeof(buf));
+    return (buf[0] << 0) | (buf[1] << 8);
+}
+
+static uint32_t
+pciRead32(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd, unsigned pos)
+{
+    uint8_t buf[4];
+    pciRead(dev, cfgfd, pos, &buf[0], sizeof(buf));
+    return (buf[0] << 0) | (buf[1] << 8) | (buf[2] << 16) | (buf[3] << 24);
+}
+
+static int
+pciWrite(pciDevice *dev,
+         int cfgfd,
+         unsigned pos,
+         uint8_t *buf,
+         unsigned buflen)
+{
+    if (lseek(cfgfd, pos, SEEK_SET) != pos ||
+        safewrite(cfgfd, buf, buflen) != buflen) {
+        char ebuf[1024];
+        VIR_WARN("Failed to write to '%s' : %s", dev->path,
+                 virStrerror(errno, ebuf, sizeof(ebuf)));
+        return -1;
+    }
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static void
+pciWrite16(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd, unsigned pos, uint16_t val)
+{
+    uint8_t buf[2] = { (val >> 0), (val >> 8) };
+    pciWrite(dev, cfgfd, pos, &buf[0], sizeof(buf));
+}
+
+static void
+pciWrite32(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd, unsigned pos, uint32_t val)
+{
+    uint8_t buf[4] = { (val >> 0), (val >> 8), (val >> 16), (val >> 24) };
+    pciWrite(dev, cfgfd, pos, &buf[0], sizeof(buf));
+}
+
+typedef int (*pciIterPredicate)(pciDevice *, pciDevice *, void *);
+
+/* Iterate over available PCI devices calling @predicate
+ * to compare each one to @dev.
+ * Return -1 on error since we don't want to assume it is
+ * safe to reset if there is an error.
+ */
+static int
+pciIterDevices(pciIterPredicate predicate,
+               pciDevice *dev,
+               pciDevice **matched,
+               void *data)
+{
+    DIR *dir;
+    struct dirent *entry;
+    int ret = 0;
+    int rc;
+
+    *matched = NULL;
+
+    VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: iterating over " PCI_SYSFS "devices", dev->id, dev->name);
+
+    dir = opendir(PCI_SYSFS "devices");
+    if (!dir) {
+        VIR_WARN("Failed to open " PCI_SYSFS "devices");
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    while ((entry = readdir(dir))) {
+        unsigned int domain, bus, slot, function;
+        pciDevice *check;
+        char *tmp;
+
+        /* Ignore '.' and '..' */
+        if (entry->d_name[0] == '.')
+            continue;
+
+        /* expected format: <domain>:<bus>:<slot>.<function> */
+        if (/* domain */
+            virStrToLong_ui(entry->d_name, &tmp, 16, &domain) < 0 || *tmp != ':' ||
+            /* bus */
+            virStrToLong_ui(tmp + 1, &tmp, 16, &bus) < 0 || *tmp != ':' ||
+            /* slot */
+            virStrToLong_ui(tmp + 1, &tmp, 16, &slot) < 0 || *tmp != '.' ||
+            /* function */
+            virStrToLong_ui(tmp + 1, NULL, 16, &function) < 0) {
+            VIR_WARN("Unusual entry in " PCI_SYSFS "devices: %s", entry->d_name);
+            continue;
+        }
+
+        check = pciGetDevice(domain, bus, slot, function);
+        if (!check) {
+            ret = -1;
+            break;
+        }
+
+        rc = predicate(dev, check, data);
+        if (rc < 0) {
+            /* the predicate returned an error, bail */
+            pciFreeDevice(check);
+            ret = -1;
+            break;
+        }
+        else if (rc == 1) {
+            VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: iter matched on %s", dev->id, dev->name, check->name);
+            *matched = check;
+            ret = 1;
+            break;
+        }
+
+        pciFreeDevice(check);
+    }
+    closedir(dir);
+    return ret;
+}
+
+static uint8_t
+pciFindCapabilityOffset(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd, unsigned capability)
+{
+    uint16_t status;
+    uint8_t pos;
+
+    status = pciRead16(dev, cfgfd, PCI_STATUS);
+    if (!(status & PCI_STATUS_CAP_LIST))
+        return 0;
+
+    pos = pciRead8(dev, cfgfd, PCI_CAPABILITY_LIST);
+
+    /* Zero indicates last capability, capabilities can't
+     * be in the config space header and 0xff is returned
+     * by the kernel if we don't have access to this region
+     *
+     * Note: we're not handling loops or extended
+     * capabilities here.
+     */
+    while (pos >= PCI_CONF_HEADER_LEN && pos != 0xff) {
+        uint8_t capid = pciRead8(dev, cfgfd, pos);
+        if (capid == capability) {
+            VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: found cap 0x%.2x at 0x%.2x",
+                      dev->id, dev->name, capability, pos);
+            return pos;
+        }
+
+        pos = pciRead8(dev, cfgfd, pos + 1);
+    }
+
+    VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: failed to find cap 0x%.2x", dev->id, dev->name, capability);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static unsigned int
+pciFindExtendedCapabilityOffset(pciDevice *dev,
+                                int cfgfd,
+                                unsigned capability)
+{
+    int ttl;
+    unsigned int pos;
+    uint32_t header;
+
+    /* minimum 8 bytes per capability */
+    ttl = (PCI_EXT_CAP_LIMIT - PCI_EXT_CAP_BASE) / 8;
+    pos = PCI_EXT_CAP_BASE;
+
+    while (ttl > 0 && pos >= PCI_EXT_CAP_BASE) {
+        header = pciRead32(dev, cfgfd, pos);
+
+        if ((header & PCI_EXT_CAP_ID_MASK) == capability)
+            return pos;
+
+        pos = (header >> PCI_EXT_CAP_OFFSET_SHIFT) & PCI_EXT_CAP_OFFSET_MASK;
+        ttl--;
+    }
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+/* detects whether this device has FLR.  Returns 0 if the device does
+ * not have FLR, 1 if it does, and -1 on error
+ */
+static int
+pciDetectFunctionLevelReset(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd)
+{
+    uint32_t caps;
+    uint8_t pos;
+    char *path;
+    int found;
+
+    /* The PCIe Function Level Reset capability allows
+     * individual device functions to be reset without
+     * affecting any other functions on the device or
+     * any other devices on the bus. This is only common
+     * on SR-IOV NICs at the moment.
+     */
+    if (dev->pcie_cap_pos) {
+        caps = pciRead32(dev, cfgfd, dev->pcie_cap_pos + PCI_EXP_DEVCAP);
+        if (caps & PCI_EXP_DEVCAP_FLR) {
+            VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: detected PCIe FLR capability", dev->id, dev->name);
+            return 1;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /* The PCI AF Function Level Reset capability is
+     * the same thing, except for conventional PCI
+     * devices. This is not common yet.
+     */
+    pos = pciFindCapabilityOffset(dev, cfgfd, PCI_CAP_ID_AF);
+    if (pos) {
+        caps = pciRead16(dev, cfgfd, pos + PCI_AF_CAP);
+        if (caps & PCI_AF_CAP_FLR) {
+            VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: detected PCI FLR capability", dev->id, dev->name);
+            return 1;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /* there are some buggy devices that do support FLR, but forget to
+     * advertise that fact in their capabilities.  However, FLR is *required*
+     * to be present for virtual functions (VFs), so if we see that this
+     * device is a VF, we just assume FLR works
+     */
+
+    if (virAsprintf(&path, PCI_SYSFS "devices/%s/physfn", dev->name) < 0) {
+        virReportOOMError();
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    found = virFileExists(path);
+    VIR_FREE(path);
+    if (found) {
+        VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: buggy device didn't advertise FLR, but is a VF; forcing flr on",
+                  dev->id, dev->name);
+        return 1;
+    }
+
+    VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: no FLR capability found", dev->id, dev->name);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+/* Require the device has the PCI Power Management capability
+ * and that a D3hot->D0 transition will results in a full
+ * internal reset, not just a soft reset.
+ */
+static unsigned
+pciDetectPowerManagementReset(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd)
+{
+    if (dev->pci_pm_cap_pos) {
+        uint32_t ctl;
+
+        /* require the NO_SOFT_RESET bit is clear */
+        ctl = pciRead32(dev, cfgfd, dev->pci_pm_cap_pos + PCI_PM_CTRL);
+        if (!(ctl & PCI_PM_CTRL_NO_SOFT_RESET)) {
+            VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: detected PM reset capability", dev->id, dev->name);
+            return 1;
+        }
+    }
+
+    VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: no PM reset capability found", dev->id, dev->name);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+/* Any active devices on the same domain/bus ? */
+static int
+pciSharesBusWithActive(pciDevice *dev, pciDevice *check, void *data)
+{
+    pciDeviceList *inactiveDevs = data;
+
+    /* Different domain, different bus, or simply identical device */
+    if (dev->domain != check->domain ||
+        dev->bus != check->bus ||
+        (dev->slot == check->slot &&
+         dev->function == check->function))
+        return 0;
+
+    /* same bus, but inactive, i.e. about to be assigned to guest */
+    if (inactiveDevs && pciDeviceListFind(inactiveDevs, check))
+        return 0;
+
+    return 1;
+}
+
+static pciDevice *
+pciBusContainsActiveDevices(pciDevice *dev,
+                            pciDeviceList *inactiveDevs)
+{
+    pciDevice *active = NULL;
+    if (pciIterDevices(pciSharesBusWithActive,
+                       dev, &active, inactiveDevs) < 0)
+        return NULL;
+    return active;
+}
+
+/* Is @check the parent of @dev ? */
+static int
+pciIsParent(pciDevice *dev, pciDevice *check, void *data)
+{
+    uint16_t device_class;
+    uint8_t header_type, secondary, subordinate;
+    pciDevice **best = data;
+    int ret = 0;
+    int fd;
+
+    if (dev->domain != check->domain)
+        return 0;
+
+    if ((fd = pciConfigOpen(check, false)) < 0)
+        return 0;
+
+    /* Is it a bridge? */
+    device_class = pciRead16(check, fd, PCI_CLASS_DEVICE);
+    if (device_class != PCI_CLASS_BRIDGE_PCI)
+        goto cleanup;
+
+    /* Is it a plane? */
+    header_type = pciRead8(check, fd, PCI_HEADER_TYPE);
+    if ((header_type & PCI_HEADER_TYPE_MASK) != PCI_HEADER_TYPE_BRIDGE)
+        goto cleanup;
+
+    secondary   = pciRead8(check, fd, PCI_SECONDARY_BUS);
+    subordinate = pciRead8(check, fd, PCI_SUBORDINATE_BUS);
+
+    VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: found parent device %s", dev->id, dev->name, check->name);
+
+    /* if the secondary bus exactly equals the device's bus, then we found
+     * the direct parent.  No further work is necessary
+     */
+    if (dev->bus == secondary) {
+        ret = 1;
+        goto cleanup;
+    }
+
+    /* otherwise, SRIOV allows VFs to be on different busses then their PFs.
+     * In this case, what we need to do is look for the "best" match; i.e.
+     * the most restrictive match that still satisfies all of the conditions.
+     */
+    if (dev->bus > secondary && dev->bus <= subordinate) {
+        if (*best == NULL) {
+            *best = pciGetDevice(check->domain, check->bus, check->slot,
+                                 check->function);
+            if (*best == NULL) {
+                ret = -1;
+                goto cleanup;
+            }
+        } else {
+            /* OK, we had already recorded a previous "best" match for the
+             * parent.  See if the current device is more restrictive than the
+             * best, and if so, make it the new best
+             */
+            int bestfd;
+            uint8_t best_secondary;
+
+            if ((bestfd = pciConfigOpen(*best, false)) < 0)
+                goto cleanup;
+            best_secondary = pciRead8(*best, bestfd, PCI_SECONDARY_BUS);
+            pciConfigClose(*best, bestfd);
+
+            if (secondary > best_secondary) {
+                pciFreeDevice(*best);
+                *best = pciGetDevice(check->domain, check->bus, check->slot,
+                                     check->function);
+                if (*best == NULL) {
+                    ret = -1;
+                    goto cleanup;
+                }
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+cleanup:
+    pciConfigClose(check, fd);
+    return ret;
+}
+
+static int
+pciGetParentDevice(pciDevice *dev, pciDevice **parent)
+{
+    pciDevice *best = NULL;
+    int ret;
+
+    *parent = NULL;
+    ret = pciIterDevices(pciIsParent, dev, parent, &best);
+    if (ret == 1)
+        pciFreeDevice(best);
+    else if (ret == 0)
+        *parent = best;
+    return ret;
+}
+
+/* Secondary Bus Reset is our sledgehammer - it resets all
+ * devices behind a bus.
+ */
+static int
+pciTrySecondaryBusReset(pciDevice *dev,
+                        int cfgfd,
+                        pciDeviceList *inactiveDevs)
+{
+    pciDevice *parent, *conflict;
+    uint8_t config_space[PCI_CONF_LEN];
+    uint16_t ctl;
+    int ret = -1;
+    int parentfd;
+
+    /* Refuse to do a secondary bus reset if there are other
+     * devices/functions behind the bus are used by the host
+     * or other guests.
+     */
+    if ((conflict = pciBusContainsActiveDevices(dev, inactiveDevs))) {
+        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
+                       _("Active %s devices on bus with %s, not doing bus reset"),
+                       conflict->name, dev->name);
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    /* Find the parent bus */
+    if (pciGetParentDevice(dev, &parent) < 0)
+        return -1;
+    if (!parent) {
+        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
+                       _("Failed to find parent device for %s"),
+                       dev->name);
+        return -1;
+    }
+    if ((parentfd = pciConfigOpen(parent, true)) < 0)
+        goto out;
+
+    VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: doing a secondary bus reset", dev->id, dev->name);
+
+    /* Save and restore the device's config space; we only do this
+     * for the supplied device since we refuse to do a reset if there
+     * are multiple devices/functions
+     */
+    if (pciRead(dev, cfgfd, 0, config_space, PCI_CONF_LEN) < 0) {
+        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
+                       _("Failed to read PCI config space for %s"),
+                       dev->name);
+        goto out;
+    }
+
+    /* Read the control register, set the reset flag, wait 200ms,
+     * unset the reset flag and wait 200ms.
+     */
+    ctl = pciRead16(dev, cfgfd, PCI_BRIDGE_CONTROL);
+
+    pciWrite16(parent, parentfd, PCI_BRIDGE_CONTROL,
+               ctl | PCI_BRIDGE_CTL_RESET);
+
+    usleep(200 * 1000); /* sleep 200ms */
+
+    pciWrite16(parent, parentfd, PCI_BRIDGE_CONTROL, ctl);
+
+    usleep(200 * 1000); /* sleep 200ms */
+
+    if (pciWrite(dev, cfgfd, 0, config_space, PCI_CONF_LEN) < 0) {
+        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
+                       _("Failed to restore PCI config space for %s"),
+                       dev->name);
+        goto out;
+    }
+    ret = 0;
+
+out:
+    pciConfigClose(parent, parentfd);
+    pciFreeDevice(parent);
+    return ret;
+}
+
+/* Power management reset attempts to reset a device using a
+ * D-state transition from D3hot to D0. Note, in detect_pm_reset()
+ * above we require the device supports a full internal reset.
+ */
+static int
+pciTryPowerManagementReset(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd)
+{
+    uint8_t config_space[PCI_CONF_LEN];
+    uint32_t ctl;
+
+    if (!dev->pci_pm_cap_pos)
+        return -1;
+
+    /* Save and restore the device's config space. */
+    if (pciRead(dev, cfgfd, 0, &config_space[0], PCI_CONF_LEN) < 0) {
+        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
+                       _("Failed to read PCI config space for %s"),
+                       dev->name);
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: doing a power management reset", dev->id, dev->name);
+
+    ctl = pciRead32(dev, cfgfd, dev->pci_pm_cap_pos + PCI_PM_CTRL);
+    ctl &= ~PCI_PM_CTRL_STATE_MASK;
+
+    pciWrite32(dev, cfgfd, dev->pci_pm_cap_pos + PCI_PM_CTRL,
+               ctl | PCI_PM_CTRL_STATE_D3hot);
+
+    usleep(10 * 1000); /* sleep 10ms */
+
+    pciWrite32(dev, cfgfd, dev->pci_pm_cap_pos + PCI_PM_CTRL,
+               ctl | PCI_PM_CTRL_STATE_D0);
+
+    usleep(10 * 1000); /* sleep 10ms */
+
+    if (pciWrite(dev, cfgfd, 0, &config_space[0], PCI_CONF_LEN) < 0) {
+        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
+                       _("Failed to restore PCI config space for %s"),
+                       dev->name);
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static int
+pciInitDevice(pciDevice *dev, int cfgfd)
+{
+    int flr;
+
+    dev->pcie_cap_pos   = pciFindCapabilityOffset(dev, cfgfd, PCI_CAP_ID_EXP);
+    dev->pci_pm_cap_pos = pciFindCapabilityOffset(dev, cfgfd, PCI_CAP_ID_PM);
+    flr = pciDetectFunctionLevelReset(dev, cfgfd);
+    if (flr < 0)
+        return flr;
+    dev->has_flr        = flr;
+    dev->has_pm_reset   = pciDetectPowerManagementReset(dev, cfgfd);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+int
+pciResetDevice(pciDevice *dev,
+               pciDeviceList *activeDevs,
+               pciDeviceList *inactiveDevs)
+{
+    int ret = -1;
+    int fd;
+
+    if (activeDevs && pciDeviceListFind(activeDevs, dev)) {
+        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
+                       _("Not resetting active device %s"), dev->name);
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    if ((fd = pciConfigOpen(dev, true)) < 0)
+        return -1;
+
+    if (pciInitDevice(dev, fd) < 0)
+        goto cleanup;
+
+    /* KVM will perform FLR when starting and stopping
+     * a guest, so there is no need for us to do it here.
+     */
+    if (dev->has_flr) {
+        ret = 0;
+        goto cleanup;
+    }
+
+    /* If the device supports PCI power management reset,
+     * that's the next best thing because it only resets
+     * the function, not the whole device.
+     */
+    if (dev->has_pm_reset)
+        ret = pciTryPowerManagementReset(dev, fd);
+
+    /* Bus reset is not an option with the root bus */
+    if (ret < 0 && dev->bus != 0)
+        ret = pciTrySecondaryBusReset(dev, fd, inactiveDevs);
+
+    if (ret < 0) {
+        virErrorPtr err = virGetLastError();
+        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
+                       _("Unable to reset PCI device %s: %s"),
+                       dev->name,
+                       err ? err->message : _("no FLR, PM reset or bus reset available"));
+    }
+
+cleanup:
+    pciConfigClose(dev, fd);
+    return ret;
+}
+
+
+static int
+pciDriverDir(char **buffer, const char *driver)
+{
+    VIR_FREE(*buffer);
+
+    if (virAsprintf(buffer, PCI_SYSFS "drivers/%s", driver) < 0) {
+        virReportOOMError();
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static int
+pciDriverFile(char **buffer, const char *driver, const char *file)
+{
+    VIR_FREE(*buffer);
+
+    if (virAsprintf(buffer, PCI_SYSFS "drivers/%s/%s", driver, file) < 0) {
+        virReportOOMError();
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static int
+pciDeviceFile(char **buffer, const char *device, const char *file)
+{
+    VIR_FREE(*buffer);
+
+    if (virAsprintf(buffer, PCI_SYSFS "devices/%s/%s", device, file) < 0) {
+        virReportOOMError();
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+
+static const char *
+pciFindStubDriver(void)
+{
+    char *drvpath = NULL;
+    int probed = 0;
+
+recheck:
+    if (pciDriverDir(&drvpath, "pci-stub") < 0) {
+        return NULL;
+    }
+
+    if (virFileExists(drvpath)) {
+        VIR_FREE(drvpath);
+        return "pci-stub";
+    }
+
+    if (pciDriverDir(&drvpath, "pciback") < 0) {
+        return NULL;
+    }
+
+    if (virFileExists(drvpath)) {
+        VIR_FREE(drvpath);
+        return "pciback";
+    }
+
+    VIR_FREE(drvpath);
+
+    if (!probed) {
+        const char *const stubprobe[] = { MODPROBE, "pci-stub", NULL };
+        const char *const backprobe[] = { MODPROBE, "pciback", NULL };
+
+        probed = 1;
+        /*
+         * Probing for pci-stub will succeed regardless of whether
+         * on native or Xen kernels.
+         * On Xen though, we want to prefer pciback, so probe
+         * for that first, because that will only work on Xen
+         */
+        if (virRun(backprobe, NULL) < 0 &&
+            virRun(stubprobe, NULL) < 0) {
+            char ebuf[1024];
+            VIR_WARN("failed to load pci-stub or pciback drivers: %s",
+                     virStrerror(errno, ebuf, sizeof(ebuf)));
+            return NULL;
+        }
+
+        goto recheck;
+    }
+
+    return NULL;
+}
+
+static int
+pciUnbindDeviceFromStub(pciDevice *dev, const char *driver)
+{
+    int result = -1;
+    char *drvdir = NULL;
+    char *path = NULL;
+
+    if (pciDriverDir(&drvdir, driver) < 0)
+        goto cleanup;
+
+    if (!dev->unbind_from_stub)
+        goto remove_slot;
+
+    /* If the device is bound to stub, unbind it.
+     */
+    if (pciDeviceFile(&path, dev->name, "driver") < 0)
+        goto cleanup;
+
+    if (virFileExists(drvdir) && virFileLinkPointsTo(path, drvdir)) {
+        if (pciDriverFile(&path, driver, "unbind") < 0) {
+            goto cleanup;
+        }
+
+        if (virFileWriteStr(path, dev->name, 0) < 0) {
+            virReportSystemError(errno,
+                                 _("Failed to unbind PCI device '%s' from %s"),
+                                 dev->name, driver);
+            goto cleanup;
+        }
+    }
+    dev->unbind_from_stub = 0;
+
+remove_slot:
+    if (!dev->remove_slot)
+        goto reprobe;
+
+    /* Xen's pciback.ko wants you to use remove_slot on the specific device */
+    if (pciDriverFile(&path, driver, "remove_slot") < 0) {
+        goto cleanup;
+    }
+
+    if (virFileExists(path) && virFileWriteStr(path, dev->name, 0) < 0) {
+        virReportSystemError(errno,
+                             _("Failed to remove slot for PCI device '%s' from %s"),
+                             dev->name, driver);
+        goto cleanup;
+    }
+    dev->remove_slot = 0;
+
+reprobe:
+    if (!dev->reprobe) {
+        result = 0;
+        goto cleanup;
+    }
+
+    /* Trigger a re-probe of the device is not in the stub's dynamic
+     * ID table. If the stub is available, but 'remove_id' isn't
+     * available, then re-probing would just cause the device to be
+     * re-bound to the stub.
+     */
+    if (pciDriverFile(&path, driver, "remove_id") < 0) {
+        goto cleanup;
+    }
+
+    if (!virFileExists(drvdir) || virFileExists(path)) {
+        if (virFileWriteStr(PCI_SYSFS "drivers_probe", dev->name, 0) < 0) {
+            virReportSystemError(errno,
+                                 _("Failed to trigger a re-probe for PCI device '%s'"),
+                                 dev->name);
+            goto cleanup;
+        }
+    }
+
+    result = 0;
+
+cleanup:
+    /* do not do it again */
+    dev->unbind_from_stub = 0;
+    dev->remove_slot = 0;
+    dev->reprobe = 0;
+
+    VIR_FREE(drvdir);
+    VIR_FREE(path);
+
+    return result;
+}
+
+
+static int
+pciBindDeviceToStub(pciDevice *dev, const char *driver)
+{
+    int result = -1;
+    char *drvdir = NULL;
+    char *path = NULL;
+    int reprobe = 0;
+
+    /* check whether the device is already bound to a driver */
+    if (pciDriverDir(&drvdir, driver) < 0 ||
+        pciDeviceFile(&path, dev->name, "driver") < 0) {
+        goto cleanup;
+    }
+
+    if (virFileExists(path)) {
+        if (virFileLinkPointsTo(path, drvdir)) {
+            /* The device is already bound to pci-stub */
+            result = 0;
+            goto cleanup;
+        }
+        reprobe = 1;
+    }
+
+    /* Add the PCI device ID to the stub's dynamic ID table;
+     * this is needed to allow us to bind the device to the stub.
+     * Note: if the device is not currently bound to any driver,
+     * stub will immediately be bound to the device. Also, note
+     * that if a new device with this ID is hotplugged, or if a probe
+     * is triggered for such a device, it will also be immediately
+     * bound by the stub.
+     */
+    if (pciDriverFile(&path, driver, "new_id") < 0) {
+        goto cleanup;
+    }
+
+    if (virFileWriteStr(path, dev->id, 0) < 0) {
+        virReportSystemError(errno,
+                             _("Failed to add PCI device ID '%s' to %s"),
+                             dev->id, driver);
+        goto cleanup;
+    }
+
+    /* check whether the device is bound to pci-stub when we write dev->id to
+     * new_id.
+     */
+    if (pciDriverDir(&drvdir, driver) < 0 ||
+        pciDeviceFile(&path, dev->name, "driver") < 0) {
+        goto remove_id;
+    }
+
+    if (virFileLinkPointsTo(path, drvdir)) {
+        dev->unbind_from_stub = 1;
+        dev->remove_slot = 1;
+        goto remove_id;
+    }
+
+    /* If the device is already bound to a driver, unbind it.
+     * Note, this will have rather unpleasant side effects if this
+     * PCI device happens to be IDE controller for the disk hosting
+     * your root filesystem.
+     */
+    if (pciDeviceFile(&path, dev->name, "driver/unbind") < 0) {
+        goto cleanup;
+    }
+
+    if (virFileExists(path)) {
+        if (virFileWriteStr(path, dev->name, 0) < 0) {
+            virReportSystemError(errno,
+                                 _("Failed to unbind PCI device '%s'"),
+                                 dev->name);
+            goto cleanup;
+        }
+        dev->reprobe = reprobe;
+    }
+
+    /* If the device isn't already bound to pci-stub, try binding it now.
+     */
+    if (pciDriverDir(&drvdir, driver) < 0 ||
+        pciDeviceFile(&path, dev->name, "driver") < 0) {
+        goto remove_id;
+    }
+
+    if (!virFileLinkPointsTo(path, drvdir)) {
+        /* Xen's pciback.ko wants you to use new_slot first */
+        if (pciDriverFile(&path, driver, "new_slot") < 0) {
+            goto remove_id;
+        }
+
+        if (virFileExists(path) && virFileWriteStr(path, dev->name, 0) < 0) {
+            virReportSystemError(errno,
+                                 _("Failed to add slot for PCI device '%s' to %s"),
+                                 dev->name, driver);
+            goto remove_id;
+        }
+        dev->remove_slot = 1;
+
+        if (pciDriverFile(&path, driver, "bind") < 0) {
+            goto remove_id;
+        }
+
+        if (virFileWriteStr(path, dev->name, 0) < 0) {
+            virReportSystemError(errno,
+                                 _("Failed to bind PCI device '%s' to %s"),
+                                 dev->name, driver);
+            goto remove_id;
+        }
+        dev->unbind_from_stub = 1;
+    }
+
+remove_id:
+    /* If 'remove_id' exists, remove the device id from pci-stub's dynamic
+     * ID table so that 'drivers_probe' works below.
+     */
+    if (pciDriverFile(&path, driver, "remove_id") < 0) {
+        /* We do not remove PCI ID from pci-stub, and we cannot reprobe it */
+        if (dev->reprobe) {
+            VIR_WARN("Could not remove PCI ID '%s' from %s, and the device "
+                     "cannot be probed again.", dev->id, driver);
+        }
+        dev->reprobe = 0;
+        goto cleanup;
+    }
+
+    if (virFileExists(path) && virFileWriteStr(path, dev->id, 0) < 0) {
+        virReportSystemError(errno,
+                             _("Failed to remove PCI ID '%s' from %s"),
+                             dev->id, driver);
+
+        /* remove PCI ID from pci-stub failed, and we cannot reprobe it */
+        if (dev->reprobe) {
+            VIR_WARN("Failed to remove PCI ID '%s' from %s, and the device "
+                     "cannot be probed again.", dev->id, driver);
+        }
+        dev->reprobe = 0;
+        goto cleanup;
+    }
+
+    result = 0;
+
+cleanup:
+    VIR_FREE(drvdir);
+    VIR_FREE(path);
+
+    if (result < 0) {
+        pciUnbindDeviceFromStub(dev, driver);
+    }
+
+    return result;
+}
+
+int
+pciDettachDevice(pciDevice *dev,
+                 pciDeviceList *activeDevs,
+                 pciDeviceList *inactiveDevs)
+{
+    const char *driver = pciFindStubDriver();
+    if (!driver) {
+        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR, "%s",
+                       _("cannot find any PCI stub module"));
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    if (activeDevs && pciDeviceListFind(activeDevs, dev)) {
+        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
+                       _("Not detaching active device %s"), dev->name);
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    if (pciBindDeviceToStub(dev, driver) < 0)
+        return -1;
+
+    /* Add the dev into list inactiveDevs */
+    if (inactiveDevs && !pciDeviceListFind(inactiveDevs, dev)) {
+        if (pciDeviceListAdd(inactiveDevs, dev) < 0)
+            return -1;
+    }
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+int
+pciReAttachDevice(pciDevice *dev,
+                  pciDeviceList *activeDevs,
+                  pciDeviceList *inactiveDevs)
+{
+    const char *driver = pciFindStubDriver();
+    if (!driver) {
+        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR, "%s",
+                       _("cannot find any PCI stub module"));
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    if (activeDevs && pciDeviceListFind(activeDevs, dev)) {
+        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
+                       _("Not reattaching active device %s"), dev->name);
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    if (pciUnbindDeviceFromStub(dev, driver) < 0)
+        return -1;
+
+    /* Steal the dev from list inactiveDevs */
+    if (inactiveDevs)
+        pciDeviceListSteal(inactiveDevs, dev);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+/* Certain hypervisors (like qemu/kvm) map the PCI bar(s) on
+ * the host when doing device passthrough.  This can lead to a race
+ * condition where the hypervisor is still cleaning up the device while
+ * libvirt is trying to re-attach it to the host device driver.  To avoid
+ * this situation, we look through /proc/iomem, and if the hypervisor is
+ * still holding onto the bar (denoted by the string in the matcher variable),
+ * then we can wait around a bit for that to clear up.
+ *
+ * A typical /proc/iomem looks like this (snipped for brevity):
+ * 00010000-0008efff : System RAM
+ * 0008f000-0008ffff : reserved
+ * ...
+ * 00100000-cc9fcfff : System RAM
+ *   00200000-00483d3b : Kernel code
+ *   00483d3c-005c88df : Kernel data
+ * cc9fd000-ccc71fff : ACPI Non-volatile Storage
+ * ...
+ * d0200000-d02fffff : PCI Bus #05
+ *   d0200000-d021ffff : 0000:05:00.0
+ *     d0200000-d021ffff : e1000e
+ *   d0220000-d023ffff : 0000:05:00.0
+ *     d0220000-d023ffff : e1000e
+ * ...
+ * f0000000-f0003fff : 0000:00:1b.0
+ *   f0000000-f0003fff : kvm_assigned_device
+ *
+ * Returns 0 if we are clear to continue, and 1 if the hypervisor is still
+ * holding onto the resource.
+ */
+int
+pciWaitForDeviceCleanup(pciDevice *dev, const char *matcher)
+{
+    FILE *fp;
+    char line[160];
+    char *tmp;
+    unsigned long long start, end;
+    unsigned int domain, bus, slot, function;
+    int in_matching_device;
+    int ret;
+    size_t match_depth;
+
+    fp = fopen("/proc/iomem", "r");
+    if (!fp) {
+        /* If we failed to open iomem, we just basically ignore the error.  The
+         * unbind might succeed anyway, and besides, it's very likely we have
+         * no way to report the error
+         */
+        VIR_DEBUG("Failed to open /proc/iomem, trying to continue anyway");
+        return 0;
+    }
+
+    ret = 0;
+    in_matching_device = 0;
+    match_depth = 0;
+    while (fgets(line, sizeof(line), fp) != 0) {
+        /* the logic here is a bit confusing.  For each line, we look to
+         * see if it matches the domain:bus:slot.function we were given.
+         * If this line matches the DBSF, then any subsequent lines indented
+         * by 2 spaces are the PCI regions for this device.  It's also
+         * possible that none of the PCI regions are currently mapped, in
+         * which case we have no indented regions.  This code handles all
+         * of these situations
+         */
+        if (in_matching_device && (strspn(line, " ") == (match_depth + 2))) {
+            /* expected format: <start>-<end> : <suffix> */
+            if (/* start */
+                virStrToLong_ull(line, &tmp, 16, &start) < 0 || *tmp != '-' ||
+                /* end */
+                virStrToLong_ull(tmp + 1, &tmp, 16, &end) < 0 ||
+                (tmp = STRSKIP(tmp, " : ")) == NULL)
+                continue;
+
+            if (STRPREFIX(tmp, matcher)) {
+                ret = 1;
+                break;
+            }
+        }
+        else {
+            in_matching_device = 0;
+
+            /* expected format: <start>-<end> : <domain>:<bus>:<slot>.<function> */
+            if (/* start */
+                virStrToLong_ull(line, &tmp, 16, &start) < 0 || *tmp != '-' ||
+                /* end */
+                virStrToLong_ull(tmp + 1, &tmp, 16, &end) < 0 ||
+                (tmp = STRSKIP(tmp, " : ")) == NULL ||
+                /* domain */
+                virStrToLong_ui(tmp, &tmp, 16, &domain) < 0 || *tmp != ':' ||
+                /* bus */
+                virStrToLong_ui(tmp + 1, &tmp, 16, &bus) < 0 || *tmp != ':' ||
+                /* slot */
+                virStrToLong_ui(tmp + 1, &tmp, 16, &slot) < 0 || *tmp != '.' ||
+                /* function */
+                virStrToLong_ui(tmp + 1, &tmp, 16, &function) < 0 || *tmp != '\n')
+                continue;
+
+            if (domain != dev->domain || bus != dev->bus || slot != dev->slot ||
+                function != dev->function)
+                continue;
+            in_matching_device = 1;
+            match_depth = strspn(line, " ");
+        }
+    }
+
+    VIR_FORCE_FCLOSE(fp);
+
+    return ret;
+}
+
+static char *
+pciReadDeviceID(pciDevice *dev, const char *id_name)
+{
+    char *path = NULL;
+    char *id_str;
+
+    if (pciDeviceFile(&path, dev->name, id_name) < 0) {
+        return NULL;
+    }
+
+    /* ID string is '0xNNNN\n' ... i.e. 7 bytes */
+    if (virFileReadAll(path, 7, &id_str) < 0) {
+        VIR_FREE(path);
+        return NULL;
+    }
+
+    VIR_FREE(path);
+
+    /* Check for 0x suffix */
+    if (id_str[0] != '0' || id_str[1] != 'x') {
+        VIR_FREE(id_str);
+        return NULL;
+    }
+
+    /* Chop off the newline; we know the string is 7 bytes */
+    id_str[6] = '\0';
+
+    return id_str;
+}
+
+int
+pciGetDeviceAddrString(unsigned domain,
+                       unsigned bus,
+                       unsigned slot,
+                       unsigned function,
+                       char **pciConfigAddr)
+{
+    pciDevice *dev = NULL;
+    int ret = -1;
+
+    dev = pciGetDevice(domain, bus, slot, function);
+    if (dev != NULL) {
+        if ((*pciConfigAddr = strdup(dev->name)) == NULL) {
+            virReportOOMError();
+            goto cleanup;
+        }
+        ret = 0;
+    }
+
+cleanup:
+    pciFreeDevice(dev);
+    return ret;
+}
+
+pciDevice *
+pciGetDevice(unsigned domain,
+             unsigned bus,
+             unsigned slot,
+             unsigned function)
+{
+    pciDevice *dev;
+    char *vendor = NULL;
+    char *product = NULL;
+
+    if (VIR_ALLOC(dev) < 0) {
+        virReportOOMError();
+        return NULL;
+    }
+
+    dev->domain   = domain;
+    dev->bus      = bus;
+    dev->slot     = slot;
+    dev->function = function;
+
+    if (snprintf(dev->name, sizeof(dev->name), "%.4x:%.2x:%.2x.%.1x",
+                 dev->domain, dev->bus, dev->slot,
+                 dev->function) >= sizeof(dev->name)) {
+        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
+                       _("dev->name buffer overflow: %.4x:%.2x:%.2x.%.1x"),
+                       dev->domain, dev->bus, dev->slot, dev->function);
+        goto error;
+    }
+    if (virAsprintf(&dev->path, PCI_SYSFS "devices/%s/config",
+                    dev->name) < 0) {
+        virReportOOMError();
+        goto error;
+    }
+
+    if (access(dev->path, F_OK) != 0) {
+        virReportSystemError(errno,
+                             _("Device %s not found: could not access %s"),
+                             dev->name, dev->path);
+        goto error;
+    }
+
+    vendor  = pciReadDeviceID(dev, "vendor");
+    product = pciReadDeviceID(dev, "device");
+
+    if (!vendor || !product) {
+        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
+                       _("Failed to read product/vendor ID for %s"),
+                       dev->name);
+        goto error;
+    }
+
+    /* strings contain '0x' prefix */
+    if (snprintf(dev->id, sizeof(dev->id), "%s %s", &vendor[2],
+                 &product[2]) >= sizeof(dev->id)) {
+        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
+                       _("dev->id buffer overflow: %s %s"),
+                       &vendor[2], &product[2]);
+        goto error;
+    }
+
+    VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: initialized", dev->id, dev->name);
+
+cleanup:
+    VIR_FREE(product);
+    VIR_FREE(vendor);
+    return dev;
+
+error:
+    pciFreeDevice(dev);
+    dev = NULL;
+    goto cleanup;
+}
+
+void
+pciFreeDevice(pciDevice *dev)
+{
+    if (!dev)
+        return;
+    VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: freeing", dev->id, dev->name);
+    VIR_FREE(dev->path);
+    VIR_FREE(dev);
+}
+
+const char *
+pciDeviceGetName(pciDevice *dev)
+{
+    return dev->name;
+}
+
+void pciDeviceSetManaged(pciDevice *dev, unsigned managed)
+{
+    dev->managed = !!managed;
+}
+
+unsigned pciDeviceGetManaged(pciDevice *dev)
+{
+    return dev->managed;
+}
+
+unsigned
+pciDeviceGetUnbindFromStub(pciDevice *dev)
+{
+    return dev->unbind_from_stub;
+}
+
+void
+pciDeviceSetUnbindFromStub(pciDevice *dev, unsigned unbind)
+{
+    dev->unbind_from_stub = !!unbind;
+}
+
+unsigned
+pciDeviceGetRemoveSlot(pciDevice *dev)
+{
+    return dev->remove_slot;
+}
+
+void
+pciDeviceSetRemoveSlot(pciDevice *dev, unsigned remove_slot)
+{
+    dev->remove_slot = !!remove_slot;
+}
+
+unsigned
+pciDeviceGetReprobe(pciDevice *dev)
+{
+    return dev->reprobe;
+}
+
+void
+pciDeviceSetReprobe(pciDevice *dev, unsigned reprobe)
+{
+    dev->reprobe = !!reprobe;
+}
+
+void
+pciDeviceSetUsedBy(pciDevice *dev, const char *name)
+{
+    dev->used_by = name;
+}
+
+const char *
+pciDeviceGetUsedBy(pciDevice *dev)
+{
+    return dev->used_by;
+}
+
+void pciDeviceReAttachInit(pciDevice *pci)
+{
+    pci->unbind_from_stub = 1;
+    pci->remove_slot = 1;
+    pci->reprobe = 1;
+}
+
+
+pciDeviceList *
+pciDeviceListNew(void)
+{
+    pciDeviceList *list;
+
+    if (VIR_ALLOC(list) < 0) {
+        virReportOOMError();
+        return NULL;
+    }
+
+    return list;
+}
+
+void
+pciDeviceListFree(pciDeviceList *list)
+{
+    int i;
+
+    if (!list)
+        return;
+
+    for (i = 0; i < list->count; i++) {
+        pciFreeDevice(list->devs[i]);
+        list->devs[i] = NULL;
+    }
+
+    list->count = 0;
+    VIR_FREE(list->devs);
+    VIR_FREE(list);
+}
+
+int
+pciDeviceListAdd(pciDeviceList *list,
+                 pciDevice *dev)
+{
+    if (pciDeviceListFind(list, dev)) {
+        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
+                       _("Device %s is already in use"), dev->name);
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    if (VIR_REALLOC_N(list->devs, list->count+1) < 0) {
+        virReportOOMError();
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    list->devs[list->count++] = dev;
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+pciDevice *
+pciDeviceListGet(pciDeviceList *list,
+                 int idx)
+{
+    if (idx >= list->count)
+        return NULL;
+    if (idx < 0)
+        return NULL;
+
+    return list->devs[idx];
+}
+
+int
+pciDeviceListCount(pciDeviceList *list)
+{
+    return list->count;
+}
+
+pciDevice *
+pciDeviceListStealIndex(pciDeviceList *list,
+                        int idx)
+{
+    pciDevice *ret;
+
+    if (idx < 0 || idx >= list->count)
+        return NULL;
+
+    ret = list->devs[idx];
+
+    if (idx != --list->count) {
+        memmove(&list->devs[idx],
+                &list->devs[idx + 1],
+                sizeof(*list->devs) * (list->count - idx));
+    }
+
+    if (VIR_REALLOC_N(list->devs, list->count) < 0) {
+        ; /* not fatal */
+    }
+
+    return ret;
+}
+
+pciDevice *
+pciDeviceListSteal(pciDeviceList *list,
+                   pciDevice *dev)
+{
+    return pciDeviceListStealIndex(list, pciDeviceListFindIndex(list, dev));
+}
+
+void
+pciDeviceListDel(pciDeviceList *list,
+                 pciDevice *dev)
+{
+    pciDevice *ret = pciDeviceListSteal(list, dev);
+    if (ret)
+        pciFreeDevice(ret);
+}
+
+int
+pciDeviceListFindIndex(pciDeviceList *list, pciDevice *dev)
+{
+    int i;
+
+    for (i = 0; i < list->count; i++)
+        if (list->devs[i]->domain   == dev->domain &&
+            list->devs[i]->bus      == dev->bus    &&
+            list->devs[i]->slot     == dev->slot   &&
+            list->devs[i]->function == dev->function)
+            return i;
+    return -1;
+}
+
+pciDevice *
+pciDeviceListFind(pciDeviceList *list, pciDevice *dev)
+{
+    int i;
+
+    if ((i = pciDeviceListFindIndex(list, dev)) >= 0)
+        return list->devs[i];
+    else
+        return NULL;
+}
+
+
+int pciDeviceFileIterate(pciDevice *dev,
+                         pciDeviceFileActor actor,
+                         void *opaque)
+{
+    char *pcidir = NULL;
+    char *file = NULL;
+    DIR *dir = NULL;
+    int ret = -1;
+    struct dirent *ent;
+
+    if (virAsprintf(&pcidir, "/sys/bus/pci/devices/%04x:%02x:%02x.%x",
+                    dev->domain, dev->bus, dev->slot, dev->function) < 0) {
+        virReportOOMError();
+        goto cleanup;
+    }
+
+    if (!(dir = opendir(pcidir))) {
+        virReportSystemError(errno,
+                             _("cannot open %s"), pcidir);
+        goto cleanup;
+    }
+
+    while ((ent = readdir(dir)) != NULL) {
+        /* Device assignment requires:
+         *   $PCIDIR/config, $PCIDIR/resource, $PCIDIR/resourceNNN,
+         *   $PCIDIR/rom, $PCIDIR/reset
+         */
+        if (STREQ(ent->d_name, "config") ||
+            STRPREFIX(ent->d_name, "resource") ||
+            STREQ(ent->d_name, "rom") ||
+            STREQ(ent->d_name, "reset")) {
+            if (virAsprintf(&file, "%s/%s", pcidir, ent->d_name) < 0) {
+                virReportOOMError();
+                goto cleanup;
+            }
+            if ((actor)(dev, file, opaque) < 0)
+                goto cleanup;
+
+            VIR_FREE(file);
+        }
+    }
+
+    ret = 0;
+
+cleanup:
+    if (dir)
+        closedir(dir);
+    VIR_FREE(file);
+    VIR_FREE(pcidir);
+    return ret;
+}
+
+static int
+pciDeviceDownstreamLacksACS(pciDevice *dev)
+{
+    uint16_t flags;
+    uint16_t ctrl;
+    unsigned int pos;
+    int fd;
+    int ret = 0;
+
+    if ((fd = pciConfigOpen(dev, true)) < 0)
+        return -1;
+
+    if (pciInitDevice(dev, fd) < 0) {
+        ret = -1;
+        goto cleanup;
+    }
+
+    pos = dev->pcie_cap_pos;
+    if (!pos || pciRead16(dev, fd, PCI_CLASS_DEVICE) != PCI_CLASS_BRIDGE_PCI)
+        goto cleanup;
+
+    flags = pciRead16(dev, fd, pos + PCI_EXP_FLAGS);
+    if (((flags & PCI_EXP_FLAGS_TYPE) >> 4) != PCI_EXP_TYPE_DOWNSTREAM)
+        goto cleanup;
+
+    pos = pciFindExtendedCapabilityOffset(dev, fd, PCI_EXT_CAP_ID_ACS);
+    if (!pos) {
+        VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: downstream port lacks ACS", dev->id, dev->name);
+        ret = 1;
+        goto cleanup;
+    }
+
+    ctrl = pciRead16(dev, fd, pos + PCI_EXT_ACS_CTRL);
+    if ((ctrl & PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_ENABLED) != PCI_EXT_CAP_ACS_ENABLED) {
+        VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: downstream port has ACS disabled",
+                  dev->id, dev->name);
+        ret = 1;
+        goto cleanup;
+    }
+
+cleanup:
+    pciConfigClose(dev, fd);
+    return ret;
+}
+
+static int
+pciDeviceIsBehindSwitchLackingACS(pciDevice *dev)
+{
+    pciDevice *parent;
+
+    if (pciGetParentDevice(dev, &parent) < 0)
+        return -1;
+    if (!parent) {
+        /* if we have no parent, and this is the root bus, ACS doesn't come
+         * into play since devices on the root bus can't P2P without going
+         * through the root IOMMU.
+         */
+        if (dev->bus == 0)
+            return 0;
+        else {
+            virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
+                           _("Failed to find parent device for %s"),
+                           dev->name);
+            return -1;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /* XXX we should rather fail when we can't find device's parent and
+     * stop the loop when we get to root instead of just stopping when no
+     * parent can be found
+     */
+    do {
+        pciDevice *tmp;
+        int acs;
+        int ret;
+
+        acs = pciDeviceDownstreamLacksACS(parent);
+
+        if (acs) {
+            pciFreeDevice(parent);
+            if (acs < 0)
+                return -1;
+            else
+                return 1;
+        }
+
+        tmp = parent;
+        ret = pciGetParentDevice(parent, &parent);
+        pciFreeDevice(tmp);
+        if (ret < 0)
+            return -1;
+    } while (parent);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+int pciDeviceIsAssignable(pciDevice *dev,
+                          int strict_acs_check)
+{
+    int ret;
+
+    /* XXX This could be a great place to actually check that a non-managed
+     * device isn't in use, e.g. by checking that device is either un-bound
+     * or bound to a stub driver.
+     */
+
+    ret = pciDeviceIsBehindSwitchLackingACS(dev);
+    if (ret < 0)
+        return 0;
+
+    if (ret) {
+        if (!strict_acs_check) {
+            VIR_DEBUG("%s %s: strict ACS check disabled; device assignment allowed",
+                      dev->id, dev->name);
+        } else {
+            virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
+                           _("Device %s is behind a switch lacking ACS and "
+                             "cannot be assigned"),
+                           dev->name);
+            return 0;
+        }
+    }
+
+    return 1;
+}
+
+#ifdef __linux__
+
+/*
+ * returns true if equal
+ */
+static bool
+pciConfigAddressEqual(struct pci_config_address *bdf1,
+                      struct pci_config_address *bdf2)
+{
+    return ((bdf1->domain == bdf2->domain) &&
+            (bdf1->bus == bdf2->bus) &&
+            (bdf1->slot == bdf2->slot) &&
+            (bdf1->function == bdf2->function));
+}
+
+static int
+logStrToLong_ui(char const *s,
+                char **end_ptr,
+                int base,
+                unsigned int *result)
+{
+    int ret = 0;
+
+    ret = virStrToLong_ui(s, end_ptr, base, result);
+    if (ret != 0) {
+        VIR_ERROR(_("Failed to convert '%s' to unsigned int"), s);
+    } else {
+        VIR_DEBUG("Converted '%s' to unsigned int %u", s, *result);
+    }
+
+    return ret;
+}
+
+static int
+pciParsePciConfigAddress(char *address,
+                         struct pci_config_address *bdf)
+{
+    char *p = NULL;
+    int ret = -1;
+
+    if ((address == NULL) || (logStrToLong_ui(address, &p, 16,
+                                              &bdf->domain) == -1)) {
+        goto out;
+    }
+
+    if ((p == NULL) || (logStrToLong_ui(p+1, &p, 16,
+                                        &bdf->bus) == -1)) {
+        goto out;
+    }
+
+    if ((p == NULL) || (logStrToLong_ui(p+1, &p, 16,
+                                        &bdf->slot) == -1)) {
+        goto out;
+    }
+
+    if ((p == NULL) || (logStrToLong_ui(p+1, &p, 16,
+                                        &bdf->function) == -1)) {
+        goto out;
+    }
+
+    ret = 0;
+
+out:
+    return ret;
+}
+
+static int
+pciGetPciConfigAddressFromSysfsDeviceLink(const char *device_link,
+                                          struct pci_config_address **bdf)
+{
+    char *config_address = NULL;
+    char *device_path = NULL;
+    char errbuf[64];
+    int ret = -1;
+
+    VIR_DEBUG("Attempting to resolve device path from device link '%s'",
+              device_link);
+
+    if (!virFileExists(device_link)) {
+        VIR_DEBUG("sysfs_path '%s' does not exist", device_link);
+        return ret;
+    }
+
+    device_path = canonicalize_file_name(device_link);
+    if (device_path == NULL) {
+        memset(errbuf, '\0', sizeof(errbuf));
+        virReportSystemError(errno,
+                             _("Failed to resolve device link '%s'"),
+                             device_link);
+        return ret;
+    }
+
+    config_address = basename(device_path);
+    if (VIR_ALLOC(*bdf) != 0) {
+        virReportOOMError();
+        goto out;
+    }
+
+    if (pciParsePciConfigAddress(config_address, *bdf) != 0) {
+        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
+                       _("Failed to parse PCI config address '%s'"),
+                       config_address);
+        VIR_FREE(*bdf);
+        goto out;
+    }
+
+    VIR_DEBUG("pci_config_address %.4x:%.2x:%.2x.%.1x",
+              (*bdf)->domain,
+              (*bdf)->bus,
+              (*bdf)->slot,
+              (*bdf)->function);
+
+    ret = 0;
+
+out:
+    VIR_FREE(device_path);
+
+    return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Returns Physical function given a virtual function
+ */
+int
+pciGetPhysicalFunction(const char *vf_sysfs_path,
+                       struct pci_config_address **physical_function)
+{
+    int ret = -1;
+    char *device_link = NULL;
+
+    VIR_DEBUG("Attempting to get SR IOV physical function for device "
+              "with sysfs path '%s'", vf_sysfs_path);
+
+    if (virBuildPath(&device_link, vf_sysfs_path, "physfn") == -1) {
+        virReportOOMError();
+        return ret;
+    } else {
+        ret = pciGetPciConfigAddressFromSysfsDeviceLink(device_link,
+                                                        physical_function);
+    }
+
+    VIR_FREE(device_link);
+
+    return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Returns virtual functions of a physical function
+ */
+int
+pciGetVirtualFunctions(const char *sysfs_path,
+                       struct pci_config_address ***virtual_functions,
+                       unsigned int *num_virtual_functions)
+{
+    int ret = -1;
+    DIR *dir = NULL;
+    struct dirent *entry = NULL;
+    char *device_link = NULL;
+    char errbuf[64];
+
+    VIR_DEBUG("Attempting to get SR IOV virtual functions for device"
+              "with sysfs path '%s'", sysfs_path);
+
+    dir = opendir(sysfs_path);
+    if (dir == NULL) {
+        memset(errbuf, '\0', sizeof(errbuf));
+        virReportSystemError(errno,
+                             _("Failed to open dir '%s'"),
+                             sysfs_path);
+        return ret;
+    }
+
+    *virtual_functions = NULL;
+    *num_virtual_functions = 0;
+    while ((entry = readdir(dir))) {
+        if (STRPREFIX(entry->d_name, "virtfn")) {
+
+            if (virBuildPath(&device_link, sysfs_path, entry->d_name) == -1) {
+                virReportOOMError();
+                goto out;
+            }
+
+            VIR_DEBUG("Number of virtual functions: %d",
+                      *num_virtual_functions);
+            if (VIR_REALLOC_N(*virtual_functions,
+                (*num_virtual_functions) + 1) != 0) {
+                virReportOOMError();
+                VIR_FREE(device_link);
+                goto out;
+            }
+
+            if (pciGetPciConfigAddressFromSysfsDeviceLink(device_link,
+                &((*virtual_functions)[*num_virtual_functions])) !=
+                SRIOV_FOUND) {
+                /* We should not get back SRIOV_NOT_FOUND in this
+                 * case, so if we do, it's an error. */
+                virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
+                               _("Failed to get SR IOV function from device "
+                               "link '%s'"), device_link);
+                VIR_FREE(device_link);
+                goto out;
+            } else {
+                (*num_virtual_functions)++;
+            }
+            VIR_FREE(device_link);
+        }
+    }
+
+    ret = 0;
+
+out:
+    if (dir)
+        closedir(dir);
+
+    return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Returns 1 if vf device is a virtual function, 0 if not, -1 on error
+ */
+int
+pciDeviceIsVirtualFunction(const char *vf_sysfs_device_link)
+{
+    char *vf_sysfs_physfn_link = NULL;
+    int ret = -1;
+
+    if (virAsprintf(&vf_sysfs_physfn_link, "%s/physfn",
+        vf_sysfs_device_link) < 0) {
+        virReportOOMError();
+        return ret;
+    }
+
+    ret = virFileExists(vf_sysfs_physfn_link);
+
+    VIR_FREE(vf_sysfs_physfn_link);
+
+    return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Returns the sriov virtual function index of vf given its pf
+ */
+int
+pciGetVirtualFunctionIndex(const char *pf_sysfs_device_link,
+                           const char *vf_sysfs_device_link,
+                           int *vf_index)
+{
+    int ret = -1, i;
+    unsigned int num_virt_fns = 0;
+    struct pci_config_address *vf_bdf = NULL;
+    struct pci_config_address **virt_fns = NULL;
+
+    if (pciGetPciConfigAddressFromSysfsDeviceLink(vf_sysfs_device_link,
+        &vf_bdf) < 0)
+        return ret;
+
+    if (pciGetVirtualFunctions(pf_sysfs_device_link, &virt_fns,
+        &num_virt_fns) < 0) {
+        virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR,
+                       _("Error getting physical function's '%s' "
+                      "virtual_functions"), pf_sysfs_device_link);
+        goto out;
+    }
+
+    for (i = 0; i < num_virt_fns; i++) {
+         if (pciConfigAddressEqual(vf_bdf, virt_fns[i])) {
+             *vf_index = i;
+             ret = 0;
+             break;
+         }
+    }
+
+out:
+
+    /* free virtual functions */
+    for (i = 0; i < num_virt_fns; i++)
+         VIR_FREE(virt_fns[i]);
+
+    VIR_FREE(virt_fns);
+    VIR_FREE(vf_bdf);
+
+    return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Returns a path to the PCI sysfs file given the BDF of the PCI function
+ */
+
+int
+pciSysfsFile(char *pciDeviceName, char **pci_sysfs_device_link)
+{
+    if (virAsprintf(pci_sysfs_device_link, PCI_SYSFS "devices/%s",
+                    pciDeviceName) < 0) {
+        virReportOOMError();
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+int
+pciConfigAddressToSysfsFile(struct pci_config_address *dev,
+                            char **pci_sysfs_device_link)
+{
+    if (virAsprintf(pci_sysfs_device_link,
+                    PCI_SYSFS "devices/%04x:%02x:%02x.%x", dev->domain,
+                    dev->bus, dev->slot, dev->function) < 0) {
+        virReportOOMError();
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Returns the network device name of a pci device
+ */
+int
+pciDeviceNetName(char *device_link_sysfs_path, char **netname)
+{
+     char *pcidev_sysfs_net_path = NULL;
+     int ret = -1;
+     DIR *dir = NULL;
+     struct dirent *entry = NULL;
+
+     if (virBuildPath(&pcidev_sysfs_net_path, device_link_sysfs_path,
+         "net") == -1) {
+         virReportOOMError();
+         return -1;
+     }
+
+     dir = opendir(pcidev_sysfs_net_path);
+     if (dir == NULL)
+         goto out;
+
+     while ((entry = readdir(dir))) {
+            if (STREQ(entry->d_name, ".") ||
+                STREQ(entry->d_name, ".."))
+                continue;
+
+            /* Assume a single directory entry */
+            *netname = strdup(entry->d_name);
+            if (!*netname)
+                virReportOOMError();
+            else
+                ret = 0;
+            break;
+     }
+
+     closedir(dir);
+
+out:
+     VIR_FREE(pcidev_sysfs_net_path);
+
+     return ret;
+}
+
+int
+pciDeviceGetVirtualFunctionInfo(const char *vf_sysfs_device_path,
+                                char **pfname, int *vf_index)
+{
+    struct pci_config_address *pf_config_address = NULL;
+    char *pf_sysfs_device_path = NULL;
+    int ret = -1;
+
+    if (pciGetPhysicalFunction(vf_sysfs_device_path, &pf_config_address) < 0)
+        return ret;
+
+    if (pciConfigAddressToSysfsFile(pf_config_address,
+                                    &pf_sysfs_device_path) < 0) {
+
+        VIR_FREE(pf_config_address);
+        return ret;
+    }
+
+    if (pciGetVirtualFunctionIndex(pf_sysfs_device_path, vf_sysfs_device_path,
+        vf_index) < 0)
+        goto cleanup;
+
+    ret = pciDeviceNetName(pf_sysfs_device_path, pfname);
+
+cleanup:
+    VIR_FREE(pf_config_address);
+    VIR_FREE(pf_sysfs_device_path);
+
+    return ret;
+}
+
+#else
+static const char *unsupported = N_("not supported on non-linux platforms");
+
+int
+pciGetPhysicalFunction(const char *vf_sysfs_path ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED,
+              struct pci_config_address **physical_function ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED)
+{
+    virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR, "%s", _(unsupported));
+    return -1;
+}
+
+int
+pciGetVirtualFunctions(const char *sysfs_path ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED,
+             struct pci_config_address ***virtual_functions ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED,
+             unsigned int *num_virtual_functions ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED)
+{
+    virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR, "%s", _(unsupported));
+    return -1;
+}
+
+int
+pciDeviceIsVirtualFunction(const char *vf_sysfs_device_link ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED)
+{
+    virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR, "%s", _(unsupported));
+    return -1;
+}
+
+int
+pciGetVirtualFunctionIndex(const char *pf_sysfs_device_link ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED,
+                           const char *vf_sysfs_device_link ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED,
+                           int *vf_index ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED)
+{
+    virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR, "%s", _(unsupported));
+    return -1;
+
+}
+
+int
+pciConfigAddressToSysfsFile(struct pci_config_address *dev ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED,
+                            char **pci_sysfs_device_link ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED)
+{
+    virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR, "%s", _(unsupported));
+    return -1;
+}
+
+int
+pciDeviceNetName(char *device_link_sysfs_path ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED,
+                 char **netname ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED)
+{
+    virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR, "%s", _(unsupported));
+    return -1;
+}
+
+int
+pciDeviceGetVirtualFunctionInfo(const char *vf_sysfs_device_path ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED,
+                                char **pfname ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED,
+                                int *vf_index ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED)
+{
+    virReportError(VIR_ERR_INTERNAL_ERROR, "%s", _(unsupported));
+    return -1;
+}
+#endif /* __linux__ */
diff --git a/src/util/virpci.h b/src/util/virpci.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..814c24e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/src/util/virpci.h
@@ -0,0 +1,136 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2009, 2011-2012 Red Hat, Inc.
+ *
+ * This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
+ * modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
+ * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
+ * version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
+ * Lesser General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
+ * License along with this library.  If not, see
+ * <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ *
+ * Authors:
+ *     Mark McLoughlin <markmc redhat com>
+ */
+
+#ifndef __VIR_PCI_H__
+# define __VIR_PCI_H__
+
+# include "internal.h"
+
+typedef struct _pciDevice pciDevice;
+typedef struct _pciDeviceList pciDeviceList;
+
+struct pci_config_address {
+    unsigned int domain;
+    unsigned int bus;
+    unsigned int slot;
+    unsigned int function;
+};
+
+pciDevice *pciGetDevice      (unsigned       domain,
+                              unsigned       bus,
+                              unsigned       slot,
+                              unsigned       function);
+void       pciFreeDevice     (pciDevice     *dev);
+const char *pciDeviceGetName (pciDevice     *dev);
+int        pciDettachDevice  (pciDevice     *dev,
+                              pciDeviceList *activeDevs,
+                              pciDeviceList *inactiveDevs);
+int        pciReAttachDevice (pciDevice     *dev,
+                              pciDeviceList *activeDevs,
+                              pciDeviceList *inactiveDevs);
+int        pciResetDevice    (pciDevice     *dev,
+                              pciDeviceList *activeDevs,
+                              pciDeviceList *inactiveDevs);
+void      pciDeviceSetManaged(pciDevice     *dev,
+                              unsigned       managed);
+unsigned  pciDeviceGetManaged(pciDevice     *dev);
+void      pciDeviceSetUsedBy(pciDevice     *dev,
+                             const char *used_by);
+const char *pciDeviceGetUsedBy(pciDevice   *dev);
+unsigned  pciDeviceGetUnbindFromStub(pciDevice *dev);
+void      pciDeviceSetUnbindFromStub(pciDevice     *dev,
+                                     unsigned      unbind);
+unsigned  pciDeviceGetRemoveSlot(pciDevice *dev);
+void      pciDeviceSetRemoveSlot(pciDevice     *dev,
+                                 unsigned      remove_slot);
+unsigned  pciDeviceGetReprobe(pciDevice *dev);
+void      pciDeviceSetReprobe(pciDevice     *dev,
+                              unsigned      reprobe);
+void      pciDeviceReAttachInit(pciDevice   *dev);
+
+pciDeviceList *pciDeviceListNew  (void);
+void           pciDeviceListFree (pciDeviceList *list);
+int            pciDeviceListAdd  (pciDeviceList *list,
+                                  pciDevice *dev);
+pciDevice *    pciDeviceListGet (pciDeviceList *list,
+                                 int idx);
+int            pciDeviceListCount (pciDeviceList *list);
+pciDevice *    pciDeviceListSteal (pciDeviceList *list,
+                                   pciDevice *dev);
+pciDevice *    pciDeviceListStealIndex(pciDeviceList *list,
+                                       int idx);
+void           pciDeviceListDel  (pciDeviceList *list,
+                                  pciDevice *dev);
+pciDevice *    pciDeviceListFind (pciDeviceList *list,
+                                  pciDevice *dev);
+int            pciDeviceListFindIndex(pciDeviceList *list,
+                                      pciDevice *dev);
+
+/*
+ * Callback that will be invoked once for each file
+ * associated with / used for PCI host device access.
+ *
+ * Should return 0 if successfully processed, or
+ * -1 to indicate error and abort iteration
+ */
+typedef int (*pciDeviceFileActor)(pciDevice *dev,
+                                  const char *path, void *opaque);
+
+int pciDeviceFileIterate(pciDevice *dev,
+                         pciDeviceFileActor actor,
+                         void *opaque);
+
+int pciDeviceIsAssignable(pciDevice *dev,
+                          int strict_acs_check);
+int pciWaitForDeviceCleanup(pciDevice *dev, const char *matcher);
+
+int pciGetPhysicalFunction(const char *sysfs_path,
+                           struct pci_config_address **phys_fn);
+
+int pciGetVirtualFunctions(const char *sysfs_path,
+                           struct pci_config_address ***virtual_functions,
+                           unsigned int *num_virtual_functions);
+
+int pciDeviceIsVirtualFunction(const char *vf_sysfs_device_link);
+
+int pciGetVirtualFunctionIndex(const char *pf_sysfs_device_link,
+                               const char *vf_sysfs_device_link,
+                               int *vf_index);
+
+int pciConfigAddressToSysfsFile(struct pci_config_address *dev,
+                                char **pci_sysfs_device_link);
+
+int pciDeviceNetName(char *device_link_sysfs_path, char **netname);
+
+int pciSysfsFile(char *pciDeviceName, char **pci_sysfs_device_link)
+    ATTRIBUTE_RETURN_CHECK;
+
+int pciGetDeviceAddrString(unsigned domain,
+                           unsigned bus,
+                           unsigned slot,
+                           unsigned function,
+                           char **pciConfigAddr)
+    ATTRIBUTE_NONNULL(5) ATTRIBUTE_RETURN_CHECK;
+
+int pciDeviceGetVirtualFunctionInfo(const char *vf_sysfs_device_path,
+                                    char **pfname, int *vf_index);
+
+#endif /* __VIR_PCI_H__ */
diff --git a/src/xen/xen_driver.c b/src/xen/xen_driver.c
index 94df116..9b2fcf3 100644
--- a/src/xen/xen_driver.c
+++ b/src/xen/xen_driver.c
@@ -57,7 +57,7 @@
 #include "util.h"
 #include "viralloc.h"
 #include "node_device_conf.h"
-#include "pci.h"
+#include "virpci.h"
 #include "uuid.h"
 #include "fdstream.h"
 #include "virfile.h"
-- 
1.7.11.7


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