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[libvirt] [PATCH] docs: Add "PCI topology and hotplug" guidelines



For all machine types except i440fx, making a guest hotplug
capable requires some sort of planning. Add some information
to help users make educated choices when defining the PCI
topology of guests.

Signed-off-by: Andrea Bolognani <abologna redhat com>
---
 docs/formatdomain.html.in |   4 +-
 docs/pci-hotplug.html.in  | 164 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 2 files changed, 167 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
 create mode 100644 docs/pci-hotplug.html.in

diff --git a/docs/formatdomain.html.in b/docs/formatdomain.html.in
index bceddd2..7c4450c 100644
--- a/docs/formatdomain.html.in
+++ b/docs/formatdomain.html.in
@@ -3505,7 +3505,9 @@
       appear more than once, with a group of virtual devices tied to a
       virtual controller.  Normally, libvirt can automatically infer such
       controllers without requiring explicit XML markup, but sometimes
-      it is necessary to provide an explicit controller element.
+      it is necessary to provide an explicit controller element, notably
+      when planning the <a href="pci-hotplug.html">PCI topology</a>
+      for guests where device hotplug is expected.
     </p>
 
 <pre>
diff --git a/docs/pci-hotplug.html.in b/docs/pci-hotplug.html.in
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f3d1610
--- /dev/null
+++ b/docs/pci-hotplug.html.in
@@ -0,0 +1,164 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd";>
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml";>
+  <body>
+    <h1>PCI topology and hotplug</h1>
+
+    <ul id="toc"></ul>
+
+    <p>
+      Perhaps surprisingly, most libvirt guests support only limited PCI
+      device hotplug out of the box, or even none at all.
+    </p>
+    <p>
+      The reason for this apparent limitation is the fact that each
+      hotplugged PCI device might require additional PCI controllers to
+      be added to the guest, and libvirt has no way of knowing in advance
+      how many devices will be hotplugged during the guest's lifetime,
+      thus making it impossible to automatically provide the right amount
+      of PCI controllers: any arbitrary number would end up being too big
+      for some users, and too small for others.
+    </p>
+    <p>
+      Ultimately, the user is the only one who knows how much the guest
+      will need to grow dynamically, so the responsability of planning
+      a suitabile PCI topology in advance falls on them.
+    </p>
+    <p>
+      This document aims at providing all the information needed to
+      successfully plan the PCI topology of a guest. Note that the
+      details can vary a lot between architectures and even machine
+      types, hence the way it's organized.
+    </p>
+
+    <h2><a name="x86_64">x86_64 architecture</a></h2>
+
+    <h3><a name="x86_64-q35">q35 machine type</a></h3>
+
+    <p>
+      This is a PCI Express native machine type. The default PCI topology
+      looks like
+    </p>
+
+<pre>
+&lt;controller type='pci' index='0' model='pcie-root'/&gt;
+&lt;controller type='pci' index='1' model='pcie-root-port'&gt;
+  &lt;model name='pcie-root-port'/&gt;
+  &lt;target chassis='1' port='0x10'/&gt;
+  &lt;address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x01' function='0x0'/&gt;
+&lt;/controller&gt;</pre>
+
+    <p>
+      and supports hotplugging a single PCI Express device, either
+      emulated or assigned from the host.
+    </p>
+    <p>
+      Slots on the <code>pcie-root</code> controller do not support
+      hotplug, so the device will be hotplugged into the
+      <code>pcie-root-port</code> controller. If you plan to hotplug
+      more than a single PCI Express device, you should add a suitable
+      number of <code>pcie-root-port</code> controllers when defining
+      the guest: for example, add
+    </p>
+
+<pre>
+&lt;controller type='pci' model='pcie-root-port'/&gt;
+&lt;controller type='pci' model='pcie-root-port'/&gt;
+&lt;controller type='pci' model='pcie-root-port'/&gt;</pre>
+
+    <p>
+      if you expect to hotplug up to three PCI Express devices,
+      either emulated or assigned from the host. That's all the
+      information you need to provide: libvirt will fill in the
+      remaining details automatically.
+    </p>
+    <p>
+      If you expect to hotplug legacy PCI devices, then you will need
+      specialized controllers, since all those mentioned above are
+      intended for PCI Express devices only: add
+    </p>
+
+<pre>
+&lt;controller type='pci' model='dmi-to-pci-bridge'/&gt;
+&lt;controller type='pci' model='pci-bridge'/&gt;</pre>
+
+    <p>
+      and you'll be able to hotplug up to 31 legacy PCI devices,
+      either emulated or assigned from the host.
+    </p>
+
+    <h3><a name="x86_64-i440fx">i440fx (pc) machine type</a></h3>
+
+    <p>
+      This is a legacy PCI native machine type. The default PCI
+      topology looks like
+    </p>
+
+<pre>
+&lt;controller type='pci' index='0' model='pci-root'/&gt;</pre>
+
+    <p>
+      where each of the 31 slots on the <code>pci-root</code>
+      controller is hotplug capable and can accept a legacy PCI
+      device, either emulated or assigned from the guest.
+    </p>
+
+    <h2><a name="ppc64">ppc64 architecture</a></h2>
+
+    <h3><a name="ppc64-pseries">pseries machine type</a></h3>
+
+    <p>
+      The default PCI topology for the <code>pseries</code> machine
+      type looks like
+    </p>
+
+<pre>
+&lt;controller type='pci' index='0' model='pcie-root'&gt;
+  &lt;model name='spapr-pci-host-bridge'/&gt;
+  &lt;target index='0'/&gt;
+&lt;/controller&gt;</pre>
+
+    <p>
+      The 31 slots on a <code>pci-root</code> controller are all
+      hotplug capable and, despite the name suggesting otherwise,
+      starting with QEMU 2.9 all of them can accept PCI Express
+      devices in addition to legacy PCI devices; however,
+      libvirt will only place emulated devices on the default
+      <code>pci-root</code> controller.
+    </p>
+    <p>
+      In order to take advantage of improved error reporting and
+      recovering capabilities, PCI devices assigned from the
+      host need to be isolated by placing each on a separate
+      <code>pci-root</code> controller, which has to be prepared
+      in advance for hotplug to work: for example, add
+    </p>
+
+<pre>
+&lt;controller type='pci' model='pci-root'/&gt;
+&lt;controller type='pci' model='pci-root'/&gt;
+&lt;controller type='pci' model='pci-root'/&gt;</pre>
+
+    <p>
+      if you expect to hotplug up to three PCI devices assigned
+      from the host.
+    </p>
+
+    <h2><a name="aarch64">aarch64 architecture</a></h2>
+
+    <h3><a name="aarch64-virt">mach-virt (virt) machine type</a></h3>
+
+    <p>
+      This machine type mostly behaves the same as the
+      <a href="#x86_64-q35">q35 machine type</a>, so you can just
+      refer to that section for information.
+    </p>
+    <p>
+      The only difference worth mentioning is that using legacy
+      PCI for <code>mach-virt</code> guests is extremely uncommon,
+      so you'll probably never need to add controllers other than
+      <code>pcie-root-port</code>.
+    </p>
+
+  </body>
+</html>
-- 
2.7.5


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