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[rhelv5-announce] Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Beta 2 Availability Announcement




Red Hat is pleased to announce the availability of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 5 Beta 2 (kernel 2.6.18-1.2747.el5).  Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
Beta 2 is a preview of the next generation of Red Hat's comprehensive
suite of enterprise operating systems and products, designed for
mission-critical enterprise computing and certified by top enterprise
hardware and software vendors.

This announcement includes details on obtaining the beta software,
reporting bugs, communicating with Red Hat and other testers via
mailing lists during the beta period, and certifying hardware.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 is still in development and therefore the
contents of the media kit, the implemented features, and the supported
configurations are subject to change before the release of the final
product.  The supplied beta packages and CD images are intended for
testing purposes only.  Remember that this early access software is not
supported and is not intended for production environments.  Do not
publish any benchmark or performance results based on this beta
release.  Upgrading from beta releases to the GA product will not be
supported.


Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Features
-----------------------------------

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 has been developed in close cooperation
with the Fedora Core 6 and the upstream community.  This is the first
Red Hat Enterprise Linux release that includes Xen-based open source
virtualization technology.  The Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Beta 2
release contains virtualization support on the x86 and x86-64
architectures as well as a technology preview of Xen for Itanium 2.
We are particularly interested in your testing feedback on the
virtualization technology.

Focus areas for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Beta 2 testing include
the following:

* Virtualization (Para/full, 32/64-bit x86, libvirt, virt-manager)
* SELinux MLS support (EAL4+ / LSPP)
* SELinux Troubleshooter (Greatly simplifies administration)
* File Integrity Checking (aide)
* Audit (Powerful new search / reporting tools; unique real time
  interface)
* Network storage (Autofs, FS-Cache (Tech Preview; see below) / NFS
  persistent local cache, NFSv4, iSCSI)
* Integrated directory & security (Smart card login with PKI / Kerberos
  authentication)
* Desktop (GNOME, X.Org 7.1, Laptop support features)
* Stateless Linux (Desktop / Server / Virtualized / Infrastructure)
  (Tech Preview; see below)
* New Driver Update Program (Improved delivery for supported drivers
  and for new drivers (including 3rd party drivers))
* Enhanced development tools (Systemtap, Frysk)
  (Tech Preview; see below)
* Enhanced large SMP support (Big kernel lock removal, etc.)
* Multi-Core Support (Quad core processor support)
* Single Node / Guest GFS2 (Tech Preview; see below)
* Kexec / Kdump (Replacing Diskdump and Netdump)
* Installer improvements
* Enhanced IPv6 support (Conformance improvements, IPv6-Ready Phase 2
  targeted, Multiple routing tables, and robustness and performance
  improvements)
* IPSEC enhancements
* I/OAT, IPv4 / IPv6 fragmentation offload & optimized buffer
  management
* Improved ACPI support, suspend to disk
* Block device data encryption support
* Root device MPIO support
* Dynamically switchable per-queue I/O schedulers
* Enhanced pipe buffering (Circular buffers)
* Integrated multi-media support (MP3, Ogg Vorbis, Ogg Theora; other
  formats TBD in final product)
* Enhanced plug and play hardware support (Cameras, etc.)
* Enhanced graphics using AIGLX/Compiz (e.g. Fading, transparency,
  etc.) (Tech Preview; see below)
* Network Manager (Automatic network configuration)
* Samba (Improved Microsoft (tm) Active Directory integration)
* Yum/Pup updater for RHN
* New Clustering infrastructure, Distributed Lock Manager (Single node
  / Guest)
* Broad range of new HW support


Technology Previews
-------------------

The following features are included in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 as
Technology Previews.  Technology Preview features are included in
Red Hat Enterprise Linux releases but are not supported except with
erratas for high-priority security issues.  Once a Technology Preview
has received adequate partner and community testing, it will become a
fully supported feature in an upcoming release of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux.  Throughout the development cycle of a Technology Preview
feature, additional portions of the feature may be made available
publicly for testing.  See the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Release Notes
for more information about these Technology Previews.

- Xen for Itanium 2

- Stateless Linux enablers.  Stateless Linux is a new way of thinking
  about how a system is to be run and managed and is designed to
  simplify provisioning and management of large numbers of systems by
  making them easily replaceable.  Included in Red Hat Enterprise Linux
  5 are a substantial number of enablers in various system utilities,
  primarily in support of read-only root configurations.  The tools
  used to provision system images are still under development.  For
  information on how to utilize these stateless capabilities, refer to
  the Release Notes.

- GFS2.  GFS2 is an evolutionary advancement based on the GFS file
  system. While fully functional, GFS2 has not yet completed all
  required qualification testing.  GFS, which has been in production
  for 5 years, is being provided with this release and is fully
  supported for non-clustered data file systems (except for root and
  boot), as well as in clustered file system configurations on shared
  storage when the cluster infrastructure is present.

- FS-Cache.  FS-Cache is a local caching facility for remote file
  systems that allows users to cache NFS data on a locally mounted disk.

- Compiz.  Compiz is an OpenGL-based compositing window manager.  In
  addition to regular window management, compiz also acts as a
  compositing manager.  In this role, compiz coordinates and
  synchronizes the overall desktop redrawing to provide a smoother
  desktop experience with less flicker and a more solid feel.

- AIGLX.  AIGLX is a feature of the otherwise fully supported X server.
  It aims to enable GL-accelerated effects on a standard desktop.  The
  project consists of a lightly modified X server, an updated Mesa
  package that adds new protocol support, and a version of metacity
  with a composite manager.  By installing these components, you can
  have GL-accelerated effects on your desktop with very few changes
  and have the ability to turn them on and off at will without
  replacing your X server.

- Ext3 Enhancement.  The EXT3 file system capacity has been extended
  as a Technology Preview beyond 8TB to a maximum of 16TB.

- Frysk GUI.  The goal of the frysk project is to create an
  intelligent, distributed, always-on system monitoring and debugging
  tool that allows developers and system administrators to monitor
  running processes and threads (including creation and destruction
  events), monitor the use of locking primitives, expose deadlocks,
  gather data, and debug any given process by either choosing it from
  a list or by accepting frysk's offer to open a source code or other
  window on a process that is in the process of crashing or that has
  been misbehaving in certain user-definable ways.  In Red Hat
  Enterprise Linux 5, the frysk graphical user interface is a
  Technology Preview; the frysk command line interface is fully
  supported.

- Systemtap.  Systemtap provides free software (GPL) infrastructure to
  simplify the gathering of information about the running Linux system.
  This assists diagnosis of a performance or functional problem.
  Systemtap eliminates the need for the developer to go through the
  tedious and disruptive instrument, recompile, install, and reboot
  sequence that may be otherwise required to collect data.

- Kannada.  Kannada is a newly supported Indian language.

- Dogtail.  Dogtail is a GUI test tool and automation framework written
  in Python that uses Accessibility (A11Y1) technologies to communicate
  with desktop applications.


New Packaging Structure in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
-----------------------------------------------------

The architecture of the media kit in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Beta 2
has changed from previous releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.  The
number of different variants and trees (ISOs) has been reduced to:

* Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Server
* Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Client (Desktop)

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Client is available for the x86 and x86-64
architectures only.

The trees contain repositories for a number of options that provide
additional functionality over the core distribution.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server variant:

   * Red Hat Enterprise Linux.  Default multi-purpose server operating
     system including virtualization capabilities.  In addition to a
     non-virtualizing kernel, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 includes a
     virtualizing host kernel (Dom0) and a para-virtualized guest
     kernel (DomU).

     The one Server option is:

     + Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization Platform Option.
       Datacenter virtualization operating system including clustering
       and cluster storage.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Client variant:

   * Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop.  Default multi-purpose client.
     Full suite of desktop applications including Evolution and
     OpenOffice (not available on the Server).

     The two Desktop options are:

     + Workstation Option.  Add-on option for engineering and
       development workstations.  Provides Engineering Workstation
       and Developer packages.

     + DualOS Option.  Virtualization support add-on option.


Accessing the Software
----------------------

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Beta 2 is available to existing Red Hat
Enterprise Linux subscribers via RHN.  The beta channels will
automatically appear in your account.  Installable binary and source
ISO images are available via Red Hat Network at:

  https://rhn.redhat.com/network/software/download_isos_full.pxt

You will be required to login using a valid RHN account with active
entitlements.  If you would like to test Beta 2 but do not have an
active Red Hat Enterprise Linux entitlement, contact your local
Red Hat representative.

Red Hat plans to update packages as necessary on RHN post Beta 2
release.  Check your RHN account regularly for updates.


Installing the Software / Installation Numbers
----------------------------------------------

The ISO images contain the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 core and
optional components.  Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 requires users to
enter an Installation Number that guides the Installer to include the
correct components.  In the final release, the Installation Number
will be associated with your subscription entitlement.  If you plan
to install multiple systems using a Kickstart file, you can embed an
Installation Number in that Kickstart file.

If an Installation Number is not entered, a core Server or Desktop
will be installed by default.  Additional functionality can be added
manually or via RHN at a later time.

The following installation numbers should be used for Beta 2 and
supercede those in the redhat-release-notes package:

Server:

* Red Hat Enterprise Linux (Server including virtualization):
  2515dd4e215225dd

 + Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization Platform:
   49af89414d147589

Client:

* Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop:
  660266e267419c67

 + Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop + Workstation Option:
   da3122afdb7edd23

 + Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop + Workstation + DualOS Option
   (Virtualization):
   7fcc43557e9bbc42

 + Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop + DualOS Option (Virtualization):
   fed67649ff918c77


Bug Reporting
-------------

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Beta testers who have assigned Technical
Account Managers (TAMs) and/or Technical Partner Managers should
report all bugs with this beta release using your current Issue
Tracker account.

All other beta users should report bugs using Red Hat's Bugzilla.  To
report and query for bugs in this Beta release, you need a Bugzilla
account with access to the "Red Hat Enterprise Linux Public Beta"
product.

To report a bug via Bugzilla:

1. Login to the Bugzilla home page at http://bugzilla.redhat.com.
   If you don't have an existing account, simply create one by going
   to this page:

   https://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/createaccount.cgi

2. On the Bugzilla home page, choose the "New" tab.  Proceed to
   Step 3, "Choosing Your Product" by clicking that button at the
   bottom of the page.

3. Choose Product "Red Hat Enterprise Linux Public Beta".

4. Choose Version "rhel5-beta2".

5. Choose the component against which you wish to report a problem,
   such as kernel, glibc, etc.  If you do not know the component or
   want to file a bug against the general product, choose
   "distribution" as the component.

6. Choose the platform, such as: "All", "x86_64", etc.

7. Provide the information about the problem you're reporting by
   entering information in the appropriate fields.  In the Summary
   field, provide a clear and descriptive abstract of the issue.
   In the Description field, state clearly that you are using a
   *Beta 2* package and provide the full package versions of any
   components you are experiencing problems with (as packages may be
   updated).

8. Check to make sure that all information is accurate and click the
   "Commit" button to submit your problem report.

Documentation
-------------

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 documentation can be found at:

  http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/enterprise/RHEL-5-manual/index.html

The Release Notes are also attached to this announcement and
are on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 installed system in the
redhat-release-notes package.


Known Issues
------------

- IA32 Execution Layer.  IA32 Execution Layer users should note a
  change regarding the installation of the IA32 Execution Layer CD
  for Beta 2 only.  Install the following components in this
  order:

  + Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 operating system
  + IA32EL from the Supplementary CD
  + bash.i386 and libtermcap.i386 from the compat-layer CD
  + the remaining 32-bit packages from the compat-layer CD

You can view additional known issues in the Release Notes and in the
Red Hat Knowledgebase system at:

  http://kbase.redhat.com/faq/topten_105_0.shtm


Mailing Lists
-------------

For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and subsequent updates, the
announcement mailing list is rhelv5-announce redhat com.  Subscribe
using the web-based mailing list interface at:

  http://www.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo/rhelv5-announce

Red Hat has created a public mailing list for general discussion of
the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 (Tikanga) Beta releases.  To subscribe
to the list, send mail to rhelv5-beta-list-request redhat com with
'subscribe' in the subject line.  Leave the body empty.  Or subscribe
using the web-based mailing list interface at:

  https://www.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo/rhelv5-beta-list/


Thank you for your interest in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
beta program.  We look forward to working with you to ensure
a high quality release.

Sincerely,

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux Team



   Copyright (c) 2006 Red Hat, Inc. and others

------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Copyright (c) 2006 Red Hat, Inc. and others 

   ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Introduction

   The following topics are covered in this document:

     o Installation-Related Notes

     o Technology Previews

     o Known Issues

     o General Information

     o Internationalization

     o Kernel Notes

   For late-breaking information on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92 that did
   not appear in these Release Notes, refer to the Red Hat Knowledgebase at
   the following URL:

   [2]http://kbase.redhat.com/faq/topten_105_0.shtm

Installation-Related Notes

   The following section includes information specific to the installation of
   Red Hat Enterprise Linux and the Anaconda installation program.

  Note

   In order to upgrade an already-installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you
   must use Red Hat Network to update those packages that have changed.

   You may use Anaconda to perform a fresh installation of Red Hat Enterprise
   Linux 4.92 or to perform an upgrade from the latest updated version of Red
   Hat Enterprise Linux 4 to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92.

   If you are copying the contents of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92
   CD-ROMs (in preparation for a network-based installation, for example) be
   sure to copy the CD-ROMs for the operating system only. Do not copy the
   Supplementary CD-ROM, or any of the layered product CD-ROMs, as this will
   overwrite files necessary for Anaconda's proper operation. These CD-ROMs
   must be installed after Red Hat Enterprise Linux has been installed.

   Note that the minimum RAM required to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux
   4.92 has been raised to 1GB; the recommended RAM is 2GB. If a machine has
   less than 1GB RAM, the installation process may hang.

  ISO Contents and Registration

   The architecture of the media kit in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92 has
   changed from previous versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The number of
   different variants and ISO images have been reduced to two:

     o Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92 Server

     o Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92 Client

   The trees contain repositories for a number of options that provide
   additional functionality over the core distribution:

   Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92 Server

     o Red Hat Enterprise Linux -- default multi purpose server operating
       system containing virtualization with support for up to 4 virtual
       instances.

     o Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization Platform -- datacenter
       virtualization operating system including clustering and cluster
       storage

   Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92 Client

     o Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop -- Knowledge-worker Desktop product

     o Workstation Option -- add-on option for engineering and development
       workstations

     o Virtualization Option -- add-on option for virtualization support

   With optional content in the same tree or ISO image, it is important to
   avoid a mismatch between the components offered for installation and those
   covered by the subscription. Such a mismatch would result in an increased
   exposure to bug and vulnerability risks.

   In order to ensure that the components offered are in sync with the
   subscription, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92 requires entering an
   Installation Number that will be used to configure the installer to offer
   the right package set.

   If you skip entering the Installation Number, this will result in a core
   Server or Desktop installation. Additional functionality can then be added
   manually at a later time.

   Default numbers that can be used are:

   Server

     o Red Hat Enterprise Linux (Server ): 31cfdaf1358c25da

     o Red Hat Enterprise Linux (Server + Virtualization): 2515dd4e215225dd

     o Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization Platform: 49af89414d147589

   Client

     o Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop: 660266e267419c67

     o Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop / Virtualization Option:
       fed67649ff918c77

     o Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop / Workstation Option:
       da3122afdb7edd23

     o Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop / Workstation / Virtualization
       Option: 7fcc43557e9bbc42

  Subversion

   In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92, the Subversion version control system is
   linked against Berkeley DB 4.3. If you are upgrading from Red Hat
   Enterprise Linux 4 and any Subversion repositories have been created on
   the system which use the Berkeley DB backend "BDB" (rather than the pure
   file system-based "FSFS" backend), special care must be taken to ensure
   the repositories can be accessible after the upgrade. The following
   process must be performed on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 system, prior
   to upgrading to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92:

    1. Shut down any running processes and ensure that no processes can
       access the repository (for example, httpd, svnserve or any local users
       with direct access).

    2. Create a backup of the repository; for example:

 svnadmin dump /path/to/repository | gzip > repository-backup.gz
                                

    3. Run the svnadmin recover command on the repository:

 svnadmin recover /path/to/repository
                                

    4. Delete any unused log files in the repository:

 svnadmin list-unused-dblogs /path/to/repository | xargs rm -vf
                                

    5. Delete any remaining shared-memory files in the repository:

 rm -f /path/to/repository/db/__db.0*
                                

Technology Previews

   Technology Previews are features that are not currently supported, but are
   made available in a release. Their described functionalities can be
   tested; however, the only support to be provided for Technology Previews
   are erratas for high-priority security issues.

   Throughout its development, additional portions of a Technology Preview
   may also become available to the public for testing. It is the intention
   of Red Hat to fully support a technology preview in an upcoming minor or
   major release.

   Stateless Linux

           Included in this beta of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92 are
           enabling infrastructure pieces for Stateless Linux. Stateless
           Linux is a new way of thinking about how a system is to be run and
           managed, designed to simplify provisioning and management of large
           numbers of systems by making them easily replaceable. This is
           primarily accomplished by establishing prepared system images
           which get replicated and managed across a large number of
           stateless systems, running the operating system in a read-only
           manner.

           In its current state of development, the Stateless features are
           subsets of the intended goals. As such, the capability is being
           labeled as a technology preview.

           The following is a list of the initial capabilities included in
           Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92 beta:

              o running a stateless image over NFS

              o running a stateless image via loopback over NFS

              o running on iSCSI

           It is currently not possible to run Stateless Linux on a local
           file system with changes synchronized from a master server, due to
           required kernel changes.

           It is highly recommended that those interested in testing
           stateless code read the HOWTO at
           [3]http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/StatelessLinuxHOWTO and join
           [4]stateless-list redhat com 

   GFS2

           GFS2 is an evolutionary advancement based on the GFS file system.
           While fully functional, GFS2 is not yet considered
           production-ready. GFS, which has been in production for 5 years,
           is being provided with this release and is fully supported for
           non-clustered data file systems (except for root and boot), as
           well as in clustered file system configurations on shared storage
           when the cluster infrastructure is present. GFS2 is targeted to
           move to a fully supported status in a subsequent Red Hat
           Enterprise Linux 4.92 update. There is also an in-place conversion
           utility, gfs2_convert, which can update the meta data of a GFS
           file system, converting it to a GFS2 file system.

   FS-Cache

           FS-Cache is a local caching facility for remote file systems; it
           allows users to cache NFS data on a locally mounted disk. To set
           up the FS-Cache facility, install the cachefilesd RPM and refer to
           the instructions in /usr/share/doc/cachefilesd-<version>/README.

           Replace <version> with the corresponding version of the
           cachefilesd package installed.

   Compiz

           Compiz is an OpenGL-based compositing window manager. In addition
           to regular window management, compiz also acts as a compositing
           manager. In this role, compiz coordinates and synchronizes the
           overall desktop redrawing to provide a smoother desktop experience
           with less flicker and a more solid feel.

           Compiz uses 3D hardware acceleration to render effects such as
           live thumbnail windows and window drop shadows, as well as
           animated window minimizing and transitions between virtual
           desktops.

           Due to limitations in the current rendering architecture, compiz
           cannot work correctly with direct rendering OpenGL applications or
           applications using the Xv extension. Such applications will
           exhibit harmless rendering artifacts; because of this, the feature
           is currently not supported fully.

   Enhancement for Ext3

           In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92, the EXT3 file system capacity
           has been extended beyond 8TB to a maximum of 16TB. This capability
           is being included as a technology preview, and is targeted for
           full support in a future release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92.

Known Issues

     o bind upgrade error: when upgrading bind, a No such file or directory
       error may occur. This is caused by an installation sequencing bug,
       which will be addressed prior to GA. To work around this, login as
       root and run /usr/sbin/bind-chroot-admin --enable (if you have
       installed the bind-chroot package) or /usr/sbin/bind-chroot-admin
       --sync (if you have installed the caching-nameserver package).

     o caching-nameserver upgrade error: when upgrading caching-nameserver,
       the logs display an invalid context error. This is caused by a
       dependency issue with the selinux-policy package, which will be
       addressed prior to GA. To work around this, login as root and run
       /usr/sbin/bind-chroot-admin --sync.

     o Kernel module packages (kmods) can only be built with kABI
       dependencies if they are built on a system for which both the
       kernel-devel and the corresponding kernel package are installed. As
       such, it is currently not possible to build kABI-enhanced kmods
       against uninstalled kernels. This limitation will be addressed prior
       to GA.

     o Host bus adapters that use the MegaRAID driver must be set to operate
       in "Mass Storage" emulation mode, not in "I2O" emulation mode. To do
       this, perform the following steps:

         1. Enter the MegaRAID BIOS Set Up Utility.

         2. Enter the Adapter settings menu.

         3. Under Other Adapter Options, select Emulation and set it to Mass
            Storage.

       If the adapter is incorrectly set to "I2O" emulation, the system will
       attempt to load the i2o driver. This will fail, and render the adapter
       inoperable.

       Previous Red Hat Enterprise Linux releases generally do not attempt to
       load the I20 driver before the MegaRAID driver. Regardless of this,
       the hardware should always be set to "Mass Storage" emulation mode
       when used with Linux.

     o ext3 / jbd kernel panic: heavy I/O to file systems where the block
       size is smaller than the page size may cause jbd to crash.

       This issue is being investigated and will be resolved in GA.

     o Virtualization guest installation error: Installing a paravirt guest
       on a system with a default ethernet connection on eth1 results in a No
       Driver Found error. To work around this, set eth0 as the default
       ethernet connection.

       This issue is being investigated and will be resolved in GA.

     o Anaconda incorrectly selects vesa driver: when Red Hat Enterprise
       Linux 4.92 is installed in text-only mode on a system with a geforce
       5200-based video card, the vesa driver will be selected. This is
       incorrect, and will cause the screen to go blank once you run
       system-config-display. This issue will be resolved in GA.

       To work around this, open xorg.conf and change the line Driver "vesa"
       to Driver "nv".

     o Virtualization paravirt guest installation failure: attempting to
       install a paravirt guest on a system where SELinux is enabled will
       fail. This issue is being investigated and will be resolved in GA.

       To work around this, turn off SELinux before installing a paravirt
       guest.

     o Virtualization guest boot bug: when you install a fully virtualized
       guest configured with vcpus=2, the fully virtualized guest may take an
       unreasonably long time to boot up. This issue is being investigated
       and will be resolved in GA.

       To work around this, disable the guest ACPI by using the kernel
       parameters acpi=strict or acpi=static for the virtualized kernel
       during grub boot. Note that this workaround may not address the issue
       on some systems.

     o X Display Server crashes with virtualized kernel: when booting with
       the virtualized kernel, the X server will crash upon startup. This
       issue is being investigated and will be resolved in GA.

       To work around this, edit /etc/X11/xorg.conf by adding the following
       line in the ServerLayout section:

 Option  "Int10Backend"  "<mode>" 
                

       Replace <mode> with either vm86 (the default when running a bare Linux
       kernel) or x86emu (when running a virtualized kernel). This will allow
       runtime selection of the int10 execution method.

     o The openmpi stack quits working entirely: Red Hat Enterprise Linux
       4.92 includes openmpi-1.1.1-4.el5 (from the OFED 1.1 distribution)
       which has been discovered to eventually quit working entirely. This
       happens after the openmpi stack works as expected for a varying amount
       of time.

       This issue is being investigated and will be resolved in GA. For
       updated versions of openmpi, please check
       [5]http://people.redhat.com/dledford/Infiniband/openmpi

     o Windows Server 2003 guest install bug: Installing Windows Server 2003
       as a guest on a fully virtualized Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92 system
       ends unexpectedly after completing the first stage of installation.
       When this happens, the graphical console window closes, and the guest
       disappears from the Virtual Machine Manager's list of machines,
       resulting in a Broken pipe error.

       This issue is being investigated and will be resolved in GA. To work
       around this, use the following command at the terminal:

 xm create /etc/xen/<name of guest machine>

       Afterwards, open the virtual machine.

     o Windows Server 2003 guest stage 2 install bug: when attempting to
       create a fully virtualized Windows Server 2003 from a CD / DVD, the
       second stage of the guest install will not resume upon reboot.

       This issue is being investigated and will be resolved in GA. To work
       around this, edit /etc/xen/<name of guest machine> by appending
       'phy:/dev/dvd,hdc:cdrom,r' to the disk line. As such, the disk line
       should now read as follows:

 disk = [ 'file:/opt/win2003-sp1-20061107,hda,w', 'phy:/dev/dvd,hdc:cdrom,r']

General Information

   This section contains general information not specific to any other
   section of this document.

   Virtualization

           Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92 features virtualization capabilities
           for i686 and x86-64, as well as the software infrastructure needed
           to manage a virtualized environment.

           The implementation of virtualization in Red Hat Enterprise Linux
           4.92 is based on the hypervisor, which facilitates extremely low
           overhead virtualization through paravirtualization. With Intel
           Virtualization Technology or AMD AMD-V capable processors,
           virtualization in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92 allows operating
           systems to run unmodified in fully virtualized mode.

           Virtualization on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92 also features the
           following:

              o Libvirt, a library that provides a consistent, portable API
                for managing virtual machines.

              o Virtual Machine Manager, a graphical utility for monitoring
                and managing virtual machines.

              o Virtual machine support in the installer, including the
                ability to kickstart virtual machines.

           Red Hat Network also supports virtual machines.

   Web Server Packaging Changes

           Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92 now includes version 2.2 of the
           Apache HTTP Server. This release brings a number of improvements
           over the 2.0 series, including:

              o improved caching modules (mod_cache, mod_disk_cache,
                mod_mem_cache)

              o a new structure for authentication and authorization support,
                replacing the authentication modules provided in previous
                versions

              o support for proxy load balancing (mod_proxy_balancer)

              o support for handling large files (namely, greater than 2GB)
                on 32-bit platforms

           The following changes have been made to the default httpd
           configuration:

              o The mod_cern_meta and mod_asis modules are no longer loaded
                by default.

              o The mod_ext_filter module is now loaded by default.

           If upgrading from a previous release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux,
           the httpd configuration will need to be updated for httpd 2.2. For
           more information, refer to
           [6]http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/upgrading.html.

   Third-party Modules

           Any third-party modules compiled for httpd 2.0 must be rebuilt for
           httpd 2.2.

   php

           Version 5.1 of PHP is now included in Red Hat Enterprise Linux
           4.92, which includes a number of changes to the language along
           with significant performance improvements. Some scripts might need
           to be edited for use with the new version; please refer to the
           link below for more information on migrating from PHP 4.3 to PHP
           5.1:

           [7]http://www.php.net/manual/en/migration5.php

           The /usr/bin/php executable is now built using the CLI
           command-line SAPI, rather than the CGI SAPI. Use /usr/bin/php-cgi
           for CGI SAPI. The php-cgi executable also includes FastCGI
           support.

           The following extension modules have been added:

              o The mysqli extension, a new interface designed specifically
                for MySQL 4.1. This is included in the php-mysql package.

              o date, hash, Reflection, SPL and SimpleXML (built-in with the
                php package)

              o pdo and pdo_psqlite (in the php-pdo package)

              o pdo_mysql (in the php-mysql package)

              o pdo_pgsql (in the php-pgsql package)

              o pdo_odbc (in the php-odbc package)

              o soap (in the php-soap package)

              o xmlreader and xmlwriter (in the php-xml package)

              o dom (replacing the domxml extension in the php-xml package)

           The following extension modules are no longer included:

              o dbx

              o dio

              o yp

              o overload

              o domxml

   The PEAR Framework

           The PEAR framework is now packaged in the php-pear package. Only
           the following PEAR components are included in Red Hat Enterprise
           Linux 4.92:

              o Archive_Tar

              o Console_Getopt

              o XML_RPC

   Building kmod kernel module packages with kernel ABI dependency tracking

           On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92, it is possible to build updated
           kernel module packages that depend upon the current kernel ABI
           version and not on a specific kernel release number. This
           facilitates building kernel modules that can be used against a
           range of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92 kernels, rather than a
           single release. The project website at
           [8]http://www.kerneldrivers.org/ contains more information about
           the packaging process, as well as several examples.

   Encrypted Swap Partitions and Non-root File Systems

           Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92 now provides basic support for
           encrypted swap partitions and non-root file systems. To use these
           features, add the appropriate entries to /etc/crypttab and
           reference the created devices in /etc/fstab.

           Below is a sample /etc/crypttab entry:

 my_swap /dev/hdb1 /dev/urandom swap,cipher=aes-cbc-essiv:sha256
                        

           This creates the encrypted block device /dev/mapper/my_swap, which
           can be referenced in /etc/fstab.

           Below is a sample /etc/crypttab entry for a file system volume:

 my_volume /dev/hda5 /etc/volume_key cipher=aes-cbc-essiv:sha256
                        

           The /etc/volume_key file contains a plaintext encryption key. You
           can also specify none as the key file name, at which the system
           will ask for the encryption key during boot instead.

           It is recommended to use LUKS for setting up file system volumes.
           To do this, follow these steps:

             1. Create the encrypted volume using cryptsetup luksFormat.

             2. Add the necessary entry to /etc/crypttab.

             3. Set up the volume manually using cryptsetup luksOpen (or
                reboot).

             4. Create a file system on the encrypted volume.

             5. Add the necessary entry to /etc/fstab.

   mount and umount

           The mount and umount commands no longer directly support NFS;
           there no longer is a built-in NFS client. A separate nfs-utils
           package, which provides /sbin/mount.nfs and /sbin/umount.nfs
           helpers, must be installed for this.

   CUPS printer browsing

           CUPS printer browsing over a local subnet can be configured using
           the graphical tool system-config-printer. It can also be done
           using the CUPS web interface, [9]http://localhost:631/.

           To use directed broadcasts for printer browsing between subnets,
           open /etc/cups/cupsd.conf on the clients and change BrowseAllow
           @LOCAL to BrowseAllow ALL.

Internationalization

   This section includes information on language support under Red Hat
   Enterprise Linux 4.92.

   Input Methods

           SCIM (Smart Common Input Method) has replaced IIIMF as the input
           method system for Asian and other languages in this release. The
           default GTK Input Method Module for SCIM is provided by
           scim-bridge; in Qt, it is provided by scim-qtimm.

           Below are the default trigger hotkeys for different languages:

              o All languages: Ctrl-Space

              o Japanese: Zenkaku-Hankaku or Alt-`

              o Korean: Shift-Space

           If SCIM is installed, it runs by default for all users.

   Language Installation

           SCIM is installed by default for most Asian installations.
           Otherwise, you can use the package manager (pirut) to install
           additional language support using the "Languages" component, or
           run this command:

 su -c 'yum groupinstall <language>-support'
                        

           In the command above, <language> can be either Assamese, Bengali,
           Chinese, Gujarati, Hindi, Japanese, Kannada, Korean, Malayalam,
           Marathi, Oriya,Punjabi, Sinhala, Tamil, Thai, or Telugu.

   im-chooser

           A new user configuration tool called im-chooser has been added,
           which allows you to easily disable or enable the usage of input
           methods on your desktop. So if SCIM is installed but you do not
           wish to run it on your desktop, you can disable it using
           im-chooser.

   xinputrc

           At X startup, xinput.sh now sources ~/.xinputrc or
           /etc/X11/xinit/xinputrc instead of searching config files under
           ~/.xinput.d/ or /etc/xinit/xinput.d/.

   Pango Support in Firefox

           Firefox in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92 is built with Pango,
           which provides better support for certain scripts, such as Indic
           and some CJK scripts.

           To disable the use of Pango, set MOZ_DISABLE_PANGO=1 in your
           environment before launching Firefox.

   Fonts

           Support is now available for synthetic emboldening of fonts that
           do not have a bold face.

           New fonts for Chinese have been added: AR PL ShanHeiSun Uni
           (uming.ttf) and AR PL ZenKai Uni (ukai.ttf). The default font is
           AR PL ShanHeiSun Uni, which contains embedded bitmaps. If you
           prefer outline glyphs, you can add the following section in your
           ~/.font.conf file:

 <fontconfig>
   <match target="font">
     <test name="family" compare="eq">
       <string>AR PL ShanHeiSun Uni</string>
     </test>
     <edit name="embeddedbitmap" mode="assign">
       <bool>false</bool>
     </edit>
   </match>
 </fontconfig>                            
                        

   gtk2 IM submenu

           The Gtk2 context menu IM submenu no longer appears by default. You
           can enable it on the command line with the following command:

 gconftool-2 --type bool --set '/desktop/gnome/interface/show_input_method_menu' true
                        

   Support for text installation on CJK

           CJK (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) rendering support has been
           removed from the Anaconda text installation. The text installation
           method is being deprecated in the long term, as the GUI
           installation, VNC and kickstart methods are preferred.

   gtk2 stack

           The following packages are deprecated and scheduled for removal in
           Red Hat Enterprise Linux:

              o gtk+

              o gdk-pixbuf

              o glib

           These packages are being deprecated in favor of the gtk2 stack,
           which offers better functionality particularly in terms of
           internationalization and font handling.

   CJK input on console

           If you need to display Chinese, Japanese, or Korean on the
           console, you need to setup a framebuffer. To do this, install bogl
           and bogl-bterm, and run bterm on the framebuffer. Note that the
           kernel framebuffer module depends on the graphics chipset in your
           machine.

Kernel Notes

   This section notes the differences between 2.6.9 (on which Red Hat
   Enterprise Linux 4 is based) and 2.6.18 (which Red Hat Enterprise Linux
   4.92 will inherit) as of July 12, 2006. Additional features which we are
   currently working on upstream (for example, virtualization) that will
   appear late in 2.6.18 or 2.6.19 are not highlighted here. In other words,
   this list only shows what is already included in the upstream Linus tree;
   not what is currently in development. Consequently, this list is not a
   final, or complete list of the new Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.92 features,
   although it does give a good overview of what can be expected. Also, note
   that this section only picks out highlights of upstream changes, and as
   such it is not fully comprehensive. It does not include mention of several
   low-level hardware support enhancements and device driver info.

   The following is a good source for a next level-of-detail view:

   [10]http://kernelnewbies.org/LinuxChanges

   Performance / Scalability

              o Big Kernel Lock preemption (2.6.10)

              o Voluntary preemption patches (2.6.13) (subset in Red Hat
                Enterprise Linux 4)

              o Lightweight user-space priority inheritance (PI) support for
                futexes, useful for real-time applications (2.6.18)

                   o ref: [11]http://lwn.net/Articles/178253/

              o New 'mutex' locking primitive (2.6.16)

              o High resolution timers (2.6.16)

                   o In contrast to the low-resolution timeout API
                     implemented in kernel/timer.c, hrtimers provide finer
                     resolution and accuracy depending on system
                     configuration and capabilities. These timers are
                     currently used for itimers, POSIX timers, nanosleep and
                     precise in-kernel timing.

              o Modular, on-the-fly switchable I/O schedulers (2.6.10)

                   o This was adjustable only by boot option in Red Hat
                     Enterprise Linux 4 (also system-wide instead of
                     per-queue).

              o New Pipe implementation (2.6.11)

                   o 30-90% performance improvement in pipe bandwidth

                   o circular buffer allows more buffering than blocking
                     writers

              o "Big Kernel Semaphore": turns the Big Kernel Lock into a
                semaphore

                   o reduces latency by breaking up long lock hold times and
                     adding voluntary preemption

              o X86 "SMP alternatives"

                   o optimizes a single kernel image at runtime according to
                     the available platform

                   o ref: [12]http://lwn.net/Articles/164121/

              o kernel-headers package

                   o replaces the glibc-kernheaders package

                   o provides better suitability with the new headers_install
                     feature of the 2.6.18 kernel

                   o notable kernel header-related changes:

                        o removed <linux/compiler.h> header file, as it is no
                          longer useful

                        o removed _syscallX() macros; user-space should use
                          syscall() from the C library instead

                        o removed <asm/atomic.h> and <asm/bitops.h> header
                          files; C compiler provides its own atomic built-in
                          functions better suitable for user-space programs

                        o content previously protected with #ifdef __KERNEL__
                          is now removed completely with the unifdef tool;
                          defining __KERNEL__ in order to view parts which
                          should not be visible to user-space is no longer
                          effective

                        o removed the PAGE_SIZE macro from some
                          architectures, due to variance in page sizes;
                          user-space should be using sysconf (_SC_PAGE_SIZE)
                          or getpagesize()

                   o to provide better suitability for user-space, removed
                     several header files and header content

   Generic Feature Additions

              o kexec and kdump (2.6.13)

                   o netdump has been replaced by kexec and kdump, which
                     ensure faster boot-up and creation of reliable kernel
                     vmcores for diagnostic purposes. For more information
                     and configuration instructions, please refer to
                     /usr/share/doc/kexec-tools-<version>/kexec-kdump-howto.txt
                     (replace <version> with the corresponding version of the
                     kexec-tools package installed).

              o inotify (2.6.13)

                   o user interface for this is through the following
                     syscalls: sys_inotify_init, sys_inotify_add_watch, and
                     sys_inotify_rm_watch.

              o Process Events Connector (2.6.15)

                   o reports fork, exec, id change, and exit events for all
                     processes to user-space.

                   o Applications that may find these events useful include
                     accounting / auditing (for example, ELSA), system
                     activity monitoring (for example, top), security, and
                     resource management (for example, CKRM). Semantics
                     provide the building blocks for features like
                     per-user-namespace, "files as directories" and versioned
                     file systems.

              o Generic RTC (RealTime Clock) subsystem (2.6.17)

              o splice (2.6.17)

                   o new IO mechanism which avoids data copies when
                     transferring data between applications

                   o ref: [13]http://lwn.net/Articles/178199/

              o Block queue IO tracing support (blktrace): allows users to
                view any traffic occurring on a block device queue, which
                displays very detailed statistics of what disks are doing
                (2.6.17)

   File System / LVM

              o EXT3

                   o ext3 block reservation (2.6.10) (in Red Hat Enterprise
                     Linux 4)

                   o ext3 online resizing patches (2.6.10) (in Red Hat
                     Enterprise Linux 4)

                   o support for Extended Attributes in the body of large
                     inode in ext3: saves space and improves performance in
                     some cases (2.6.11)

              o Device mapper multipath support (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4)

              o ACL support for NFSv3 and NFSv4 (2.6.13)

              o NFS: supports large reads and writes on the wire (2.6.16)

                   o The Linux NFS client now supports transfer sizes of up
                     to 1MB.

              o FUSE (2.6.14)

                   o allows implementation of a fully functional file system
                     in a user-space program

              o VFS changes

                   o The "shared subtree" patches have been merged. (2.6.15)

                   o ref: [14]http://lwn.net/Articles/159077/

              o Big CIFS update (2.6.15)

                   o features several performance improvements as well as
                     support for Kerberos and CIFS ACL

              o autofs4: updated to provide direct mount support for
                user-space autofs (2.6.18)

              o cachefs core enablers (2.6.18)

   Security

              o Address space randomization

                   o With these patches applied, the stack of each process
                     will begin at a random location, and the beginning of
                     the memory area used for mmap() (which is where shared
                     libraries go, among other things) will be randomized as
                     well (2.6.12).

              o Multilevel security implementation for SELinux (2.6.12)

              o Audit subsystem

                   o support for process-context based filtering (2.6.17)

                   o more filter rule comparators (2.6.17)

              o TCP/UDP getpeersec: enabled a security-aware application to
                retrieve the security context of an IPSec security
                association that a particular TCP or UDP socket is using
                (2.6.17)

   Networking

              o Added several TCP congestion modules (2.6.13)

              o IPv6: supports several new sockopt / ancillary data in
                Advanced API (2.6.14)

              o IPv4/IPv6: UFO (UDP Fragmentation Offload) Scatter-gather
                approach (2.6.15)

                   o UFO is a feature wherein the Linux kernel network stack
                     will offload the IP fragmentation functionality of large
                     UDP datagram to hardware. This will reduce the overhead
                     of stack in fragmenting the large UDP datagram to
                     MTU-sized packets.

              o Added nf_conntrack subsystem (2.6.15)

                   o The existing connection tracking subsystem in netfilter
                     can only handle ipv4. There were two choices present to
                     add connection tracking support for ipv6; either
                     duplicate all of the ipv4 connection tracking code into
                     an ipv6 counterpart, or (the choice taken by these
                     patches) design a generic layer that could handle both
                     ipv4 and ipv6 and thus requiring only one sub-protocol
                     (TCP, UDP, etc.) connection tracking helper module to be
                     written. In fact, nf_conntrack is capable of working
                     with any layer 3 protocol.

              o IPV6

                   o RFC 3484 compliant source address selection (2.6.15)

                   o added support for Router Preference (RFC4191) (2.6.17)

                   o added Router Reachability Probing (RFC4191) (2.6.17)

              o Wireless updates

                   o hardware crypto and fragmentation offload support

                   o QoS (WME) support, "wireless spy support"

                   o mixed PTK/GTK

                   o CCMP/TKIP support and WE-19 HostAP support

                   o BCM43xx wireless driver

                   o ZD1211 wireless driver

                   o WE-20, version 20 of the Wireless Extensions (2.6.17)

                   o added the hardware-independent software MAC layer, "Soft
                     MAC" (2.6.17)

                   o added LEAP authentication type

              o Added generic segmentation offload (GSO) (2.6.18)

                   o can improve performance in some cases, though it needs
                     to be enabled through ethtool

              o Added new per-packet access controls to SELinux, replacing
                the old packet controls

              o Added secmark support to core networking, to allow security
                subsystems to place security markings on network packets.
                (2.6.18)

              o DCCPv6 (2.6.16)

   Added Hardware Support

  Note

           This section only enumerates the most generic features among many.

              o x86-64 clustered APIC support (2.6.10)

              o Infiniband support (2.6.11) (mostly in Red Hat Enterprise
                Linux 4)

              o Hot plug

                   o added generic memory add/remove and supporting functions
                     for memory hotplug (2.6.15)

                   o hot plug CPU support for physically adding new
                     processors (hotplug disable / enable of already existing
                     CPUs is already supported)

              o SATA/libata enhancements, additional hardware support (in Red
                Hat Enterprise Linux 4)

                   o A completely reworked libata error handler; the result
                     of all this work should be a more robust SATA subsystem
                     which can recover from a wider range of errors.

                   o Native Command Queuing (NCQ), the SATA version of tagged
                     command queuing - the ability to have several I/O
                     requests to the same drive outstanding at the same time.
                     (2.6.18)

                   o Hotplug support (2.6.18)

              o EDAC support (2.6.16) (in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4)

                   o The EDAC goal is to detect and report errors that occur
                     within the computer system.

              o Added a new ioatdma driver for the Intel(R) I/OAT DMA engine
                (2.6.18)

   NUMA (Non-Uniform Memory Access) / Multi-core

              o Cpusets (2.6.12)

                   o Cpusets now provide a mechanism for assigning a set of
                     CPUs and Memory Nodes to a set of tasks. Cpusets
                     constrain the CPU and Memory placement of tasks only to
                     the resources within a task's current cpuset. These are
                     essential in managing dynamic job placement on large
                     systems.

              o NUMA-aware slab allocator (2.6.14)

                   o This creates slabs on multiple nodes and manages slabs
                     in such a way that locality of allocations is optimized.
                     Each node has its own list of partial, free and full
                     slabs. All object allocations for a node occur from
                     node-specific slab lists.

              o Swap migration (2.6.16)

                   o Swap migration allows the moving of physical location of
                     pages between nodes in a NUMA system while the process
                     is running.

              o Huge pages (2.6.16)

                   o Added NUMA policy support for huge pages: the
                     huge_zonelist() function in the memory policy layer
                     provides a list of zones ordered by NUMA distance. The
                     hugetlb layer will walk that list looking for a zone
                     that has available huge pages but is also in the nodeset
                     of the current cpuset.

                   o Huge pages now obey cpusets.

              o Per-zone VM counters

                   o provide zone-based VM statistics, which are necessary in
                     determining what state of memory a zone is in

              o Netfilter ip_tables: NUMA-aware allocation. (2.6.16)

              o Multi-core

                   o Added a new scheduler domain for representing multi-core
                     with shared caches between cores. This makes it possible
                     to make smarter cpu scheduling decisions on such
                     systems, improving performance greatly for some cases.
                     (2.6.17)

                   o Power saving policy for the CPU scheduler: with
                     multicore/smt cpus, the power consumption can be
                     improved by leaving some packages idle while others do
                     all the work, instead of spreading the tasks over all
                     CPUs.

   ( x86 )

   --------------

   This material may be distributed only subject to the terms and
   conditions set forth in the Open Publication License, v1.0, available at
   http://www.opencontent.org/openpub/.

References

   Visible links
   1. file:///home/ddomingo/cvs/docs-stuff/readmes/RHEL5/RELEASE-NOTES-x86-en.html#ftn.id3610118
   2. http://kbase.redhat.com/faq/topten_105_0.shtm
   3. http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/StatelessLinuxHOWTO
   4. mailto:stateless-list redhat com
   5. http://people.redhat.com/dledford/Infiniband/openmpi
   6. http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/upgrading.html
   7. http://www.php.net/manual/en/migration5.php
   8. http://www.kerneldrivers.org/
   9. http://localhost:631/
  10. http://kernelnewbies.org/LinuxChanges
  11. http://lwn.net/Articles/178253/
  12. http://lwn.net/Articles/164121/
  13. http://lwn.net/Articles/178199/
  14. http://lwn.net/Articles/159077/
  15. file:///home/ddomingo/cvs/docs-stuff/readmes/RHEL5/RELEASE-NOTES-x86-en.html#id3610118
  16. http://www.opencontent.org/openpub/

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