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As we learned in part one of this blog post, beginning with the OpenStack Kilo release, a new token provider is now available as an alternative to PKI and UUID. Fernet tokens are essentially an implementation of ephemeral tokens in Keystone. What this means is that tokens are no longer persisted and hence do not need to be replicated across clusters or regions.

"In short, OpenStack's authentication and authorization metadata is neatly bundled into a MessagePacked payload, which is then encrypted and signed as a Fernet token. OpenStack Kilo's implementation supports a three-phase key rotation model that requires zero downtime in a clustered environment." (from:

In our previous post, I covered the different types of tokens, the benefits of Fernet and a little bit of the technical details. In this part of our three part series we provide a method for enabling Fernet tokens on Red Hat OpenStack Platform Platform 10, during both pre and post deployment of the overcloud stack.

Pre-Overcloud Deployment

Official Red Hat documentation for enabling Fernet tokens in the overcloud can be found here:

Deploy Fernet on the Overcloud


We’ll be using the Red Hat OpenStack Platform here, so this means we’ll be interacting with the director node and heat templates. Our primary tool is the command-line client keystone-manage, part of the tools provided by the openstack-keystone RPM and used to set up and manage keystone in the overcloud. Of course, we’ll be using the director-based deployment of Red Hat’s OpenStack Platform to enable Fernet pre and/or post deployment.

Prepare Fernet keys on the undercloud

This procedure will start with preparation of the Fernet keys, which a default  deployment places on each controller in /etc/keystone/fernet-keys. Each controller must have the same keys, as tokens issued on one controller must be able to be validated on all controllers. Stay tuned to part three of this blog for an in-depth explanation of Fernet signing keys.

  1. Source the stackrc file to ensure we are working with the undercloud:
$ source ~/stackrc
  1. From your director, use keystone_manage to generate the Fernet keys as deployment artifacts:
$ sudo keystone-manage fernet_setup \
    --keystone-user keystone \
    --keystone-group keystone
  1. Tar up the keys for upload into a swift container on the undercloud:
$ sudo tar -zcf keystone-fernet-keys.tar.gz /etc/keystone/fernet-keys
  1. Upload the Fernet keys to the undercloud as swift artifacts (we assume your templates exist in ~/templates):
$ upload-swift-artifacts -f keystone-fernet-keys.tar.gz \
    --environment ~/templates/deployment-artifacts.yaml
  1. Verify that your artifact exists in the undercloud:
$ swift list overcloud-artifacts Keystone-fernet-keys.tar.gz

NOTE: These keys should be secured as they can be used to sign and validate tokens that will have access to your cloud.

  1. Let’s verify that deployment-artifacts.yaml exists in ~/templates (NOTE: your URL detail will differ from what you see here - as this is a uniquely generated temporary URL):
$ cat ~/templates/deployment-artifacts.yaml
# Heat environment to deploy artifacts via Swift Temp URL(s)
    - '

NOTE: This is the swift URL that your overcloud deployment will use to copy the Fernet keys to your controllers.

  1. Finally, generate the fernet.yaml template to enable Fernet as the default token provider in your overcloud:
$ cat << EOF > ~/templates/fernet.yaml
            keystone::token_provider: 'fernet'

Deploy and Validate

At this point, you are ready to deploy your overcloud with Fernet enabled as the token provider, and your keys distributed to each controller in /etc/keystone/fernet-keys.

NOTE: This is an example deploy command, yours will likely include many more templates. For the purposes of our discussion, it is important that you simply include fernet.yaml as well as deployment-artifacts.yaml.

$ openstack overcloud deploy \
--templates /home/stack/templates \
-e  /home/stack/templates/environments/deployment-artifacts.yaml \
-e /home/stack/templates/environments/fernet.yaml \
--control-scale 3 \
--compute-scale 4 \
--control-flavor control \
--compute-flavor compute \


Once the deployment is done you should validate that your overcloud is indeed using Fernet tokens instead of the default UUID token provider. From the director node:

$ source ~/overcloudrc
$ openstack token issue
| Field      | Value                                    |
| expires    | 2017-03-22 19:16:21+00:00                |
| id | gAAAAABY0r91iYvMFQtGiRRqgMvetAF5spEZPTvEzCpFWr3  |
|    | 1IB8T8L1MRgf4NlOB6JsfFhhdxenSFob_0vEEHLTT6rs3Rw  |
|    | q3-Zm8stCF7sTIlmBVms9CUlwANZOQ4lRMSQ6nTfEPM57kX  |
|    | Xw8GBGouWDz8hqDYAeYQCIHtHDWH5BbVs_yC8ICXBk       |
| project_id | f8adc9dea5884d23a30ccbd486fcf4c6         |
| user_id    | 2f6106cef80741c6ae2bfb3f25d70eee         |

Note the length of this token in the "id" field. This is a Fernet token.

Enabling Fernet Post Overcloud Deployment

Part of the power of the Red Hat OpenStack Platform director deployment methodology lies in its ability to easily upgrade and change a running overcloud. Features such as Fernet, scaling, and complex service management, can be managed by running a deployment update directly against a running overcloud.

Updating is really straightforward. If you've already deployed your overcloud with UUID tokens you can change them to Fernet by simply following the pre-deploy example above and run the openstack deploy command again, with the enabled heat templates mentioned, against your running deployment! This will change your overcloud token default to Fernet. Be sure to deploy with your original deploy command, as any changes there could affect your overcloud. And of course, standard outage windows apply - production changes should be tested and prepared accordingly.


I hope you’ve enjoyed our discussion on enabling Fernet tokens in the overcloud. Additionally, I hope that I was able to shed some light on this process as well. Official documentation on these concepts and Fernet tokens in the overcloud process is available

In our last, and final instalment on this topic we’ll look at some of the many methods for rotating your newly enabled Fernet keys on your controller nodes. We’ll be using Red Hat’s awesome IT automation tool, Red Hat Ansible to do just that.


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