Anytime you have a network service that is accessible to the public internet, you must try to minimize the potential for damage if it is compromised. One way is to run a network daemon with as few privileges as possible. Assuming the compromise is not caused by a kernel bug, an intruder's access will be limited to the privileges granted to the running network daemon.
There's a new feature in Podman that lets you run network daemons with restricted network access. Since version 3.4.0, Podman supports socket activation in containers, meaning that you can pass a socket-activated socket to your container. It's possible for a container to use a socket-activated socket even when the network is disabled (that is, when the option
--network=none is passed to
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Not all software daemons support socket activation but it's becoming increasingly popular. For instance, Apache HTTP server, MariaDB, DBUS, PipeWire, Gunicorn, and CUPS all have socket activation support.
An echo server example
You can try out socket-activate-echo, a simple echo server container that supports socket activation.
First, create a container named
$ podman create \ --rm --name echo \ --network=none \ ghcr.io/eriksjolund/socket-activate-echo
Next, generate a systemd service unit:
$ mkdir -p ~/.config/systemd/user $ podman generate systemd --name \ --new echo > ~/.config/systemd/user/echo.service
A socket-activated service also requires a systemd socket unit, so create the file
~/.config/systemd/user/echo.socket. In it, define the sockets that the container uses:
[Unit] Description=echo server [Socket] ListenStream=127.0.0.1:3000 ListenDatagram=127.0.0.1:3000 ListenStream=[::1]:3000 ListenDatagram=[::1]:3000 ListenStream=%h/echo_stream_sock [Install] WantedBy=sockets.target
%h entity is a systemd specifier that expands to the user's home directory.
After editing the unit files, reload the systemd configuration:
$ systemctl --user daemon-reload
Next, start the socket unit:
$ systemctl --user start echo.socket
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Test the echo server with the program
$ echo hello | socat - tcp4:127.0.0.1:3000 hello $ echo hello | socat - tcp6:[::1]:3000 hello $ echo hello | socat - udp4:127.0.0.1:3000 hello $ echo hello | socat - udp6:[::1]:3000 hello $ echo hello | socat - unix:$HOME/echo_stream_sock hello
The echo server works as expected. It replies hello after receiving the text hello.
If the echo server is compromised due to a vulnerability, the container might be used to launch attacks against other PCs or devices on the network. However, consider that an echo server only needs to accept incoming connections on the socket-activated socket it inherits. It does not need the ability to establish outgoing connections.
Fortunately, the command-line option
–-network=none provides these kinds of restrictions.
$ grep -B8 -- --network=none \ ~/.config/systemd/user/echo.service ExecStart=/usr/bin/podman run \ --cidfile=%t/%n.ctr-id \ --cgroups=no-conmon \ --rm \ --sdnotify=conmon \ -d \ --replace \ --name echo \ --network=none ghcr.io/eriksjolund/socket-activate-echo
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Assume an intruder has shell access in the container. The situation can be simulated by executing commands with
$ podman exec -ti \ echo /usr/sbin/ip -brief addr lo UNKNOWN 127.0.0.1/8 ::1/128
Only the loopback interface is available:
$ podman exec -ti \ echo /usr/bin/curl https://podman.io curl: (6) Could not resolve host: podman.io
curl command is not able to download a web page. The network interface
tap0 that rootless Podman normally uses to access the internet is unavailable.
If I instead remove the option
--network=none, reload the systemd daemon, restart the service, and run the same commands, I see that the network interface
tap0 is available:
$ podman exec -ti \ echo /usr/sbin/ip -brief addr lo UNKNOWN 127.0.0.1/8 ::1/128 tap0 UNKNOWN 10.0.2.100/24 fd00::9847:3aff:fe5d:97ea/64 fe80::9847:3aff:fe5d:97ea/64
curl can download the web page:
$ podman exec -ti \ echo /usr/bin/curl https://podman.io | head -2 <!doctype html> <html lang="en-US">
Using socket activation together with the option
--network=none for containerized network daemons is a new way to improve security in Podman. It limits the possibilities for an intruder to use a compromised container as a starting point for attacks on other PCs.
My follow-up article takes this idea one step further by also restricting internet access for Podman and its helper programs such as conmon and the OCI runtime. The socket activation tutorial provides more information about socket activation support in Podman.