In my previous article, “Real sysadmins don’t sudo,” I discussed the really horrible misuse of
sudo by some distributions. In this article, which is partially excerpted from Chapter 11 of my book, “Using and Administering Linux, Zero to SysAdmin, Volume 1: Getting started,” I explore a couple of valid use cases for
Use case 1: Remote file copy
I recently wrote a short Bash program to copy some MP3 files from a USB thumb drive on one network host to another network host. The files are copied to a specific directory on the server that I run for an organization to which I belong, from where they can be downloaded and played.
My program does a few other things, like changing the name of the files before they are copied so that they are automatically sorted by date on the web page. It also deletes all of the files on the USB drive after verifying that the transfer has taken place correctly. This nice little program has a few options such as
-h to display help,
-t for test mode and a couple of others.
My program, wonderful as it is, needs to run as root in order to perform its primary functions. Unfortunately, this organization has only a couple of people besides myself who have any interest in administering our audio and computer systems, which puts me in the position of finding semi-technical people to train to login to the computer we use to perform the transfer and run this little program.
It is not that I cannot run the program myself, but I am not always there for various reasons such as travel and illness. Even when I am present, as the “Lazy SysAdmin,” I like to have others do my work for me. So I write scripts to automate those tasks and use
sudo to anoint a couple of users to run the scripts. Many Linux commands require the user to be root in order to run. This protects the system against accidental damage such as that caused by my own stupidity and intentional damage by a user with malicious intent.
Do do that sudo that you do so well
sudo program is a handy tool that allows me as a sysadmin with root access to delegate responsibility for all or a few administrative tasks to other users of the computer as I see fit. It allows me to perform that delegation without compromising the root password and thus maintain a high level of security on the host.
Let’s assume, for example, that I have given regular user, “ruser,” access to my Bash program,
myprog, which must be run as root in order to perform part of its functions. First, the user logs in as ruser with their own password. The user then uses the following command to run
sudo program checks the
/etc/sudoers file and verifies that ruser is permitted to run
myprog. If so,
sudo requests that the user enter their own password – not the root password. After ruser enters their own password, the program is run.
sudo also logs the facts of the access to
myprog with the date and time the program was run, the complete command, and the user who ran it. This data is logged in
I find that having the log of each command run by
sudo to be helpful in training. I can see who did what and whether they actually entered the command correctly.
I have done this to delegate authority to run a single program to myself and one other user. However,
sudo can be used to do so much more. It can allow the sysadmin to delegate authority for managing network functions or specific services to a single person or to a group of trusted users. It allows these functions to be delegated while protecting the security of the root password.
Configuring the sudoers file
As a sysadmin, I can use the
/etc/sudoers file to allow users or groups of users access to a single command, defined groups of commands, or all commands. This flexibility is key to both the power and the simplicity of using
sudo for delegation.
I have copied the entire
sudoers file in Figure 1 from the host on which I am using it in order to deconstruct it for you. I found it very confusing the first time I encountered it. Hopefully, it won’t be quite so obscure for you by the time we get through. I do like that Red Hat-based distributions tend to have default configuration files with lots of comments and examples to provide guidance. This does make things easier as much less Googling is necessary.
Do not use your standard editor to modify the
sudoers file. Use the
visudo command because it is designed to enable any changes as soon as the file is saved and you exit from the editor. It is possible to use editors besides
vi in the same way as
Let’s start analyzing this file at the beginning with a couple of types of aliases.
The Host Aliases section is used to create groups of hosts on which commands or command aliases can be used to provide access. The basic idea is that this single file will be maintained for all hosts in an organization and copied to
/etc on each host. Some hosts, such as servers can thus be configured as a group to allow some users access to specific commands such as the ability to start and stop services like HTTPD, DNS, networking, the ability to mount filesystems, and so on.
IP addresses can be used instead of hostnames in the host aliases.
## Sudoers allows particular users to run various commands as ## the root user, without needing the root password. ## ## Examples are provided at the bottom of the file for collections ## of related commands, which can then be delegated out to particular ## users or groups. ## ## This file must be edited with the 'visudo' command. ## Host Aliases ## Groups of machines. You may prefer to use hostnames (perhaps using ## wildcards for entire domains) or IP addresses instead. # Host_Alias FILESERVERS = fs1, fs2 # Host_Alias MAILSERVERS = smtp, smtp2 ## User Aliases ## These aren't often necessary, as you can use regular groups ## (ie, from files, LDAP, NIS, etc) in this file - just use %groupname ## rather than USERALIAS # User_Alias ADMINS = jsmith, mikem User_Alias AUDIO = dboth, user ## Command Aliases ## These are groups of related commands... ## Networking # Cmnd_Alias NETWORKING = /sbin/route, /sbin/ifconfig, /bin/ping, /sbin/dhclient, /usr/bin/net, /sbin/iptables, /usr/bin/rfcomm, /usr/bin/wvdial, /sbin/iwconfig, /sbin/mii-tool ## Installation and management of software # Cmnd_Alias SOFTWARE = /bin/rpm, /usr/bin/up2date, /usr/bin/yum ## Services # Cmnd_Alias SERVICES = /sbin/service, /sbin/chkconfig ## Updating the locate database # Cmnd_Alias LOCATE = /usr/bin/updatedb ## Storage # Cmnd_Alias STORAGE = /sbin/fdisk, /sbin/sfdisk, /sbin/parted, /sbin/partprobe, /bin/mount, /bin/umount ## Delegating permissions # Cmnd_Alias DELEGATING = /usr/sbin/visudo, /bin/chown, /bin/chmod, /bin/chgrp ## Processes # Cmnd_Alias PROCESSES = /bin/nice, /bin/kill, /usr/bin/kill, /usr/bin/killall ## Drivers # Cmnd_Alias DRIVERS = /sbin/modprobe # Defaults specification # # Refuse to run if unable to disable echo on the tty. # Defaults !visiblepw Defaults env_reset Defaults env_keep = "COLORS DISPLAY HOSTNAME HISTSIZE KDEDIR LS_COLORS" Defaults env_keep += "MAIL PS1 PS2 QTDIR USERNAME LANG LC_ADDRESS LC_CTYPE" Defaults env_keep += "LC_COLLATE LC_IDENTIFICATION LC_MEASUREMENT LC_MESSAGES" Defaults env_keep += "LC_MONETARY LC_NAME LC_NUMERIC LC_PAPER LC_TELEPHONE" Defaults env_keep += "LC_TIME LC_ALL LANGUAGE LINGUAS _XKB_CHARSET XAUTHORITY" Defaults secure_path = /sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin ## Next comes the main part: which users can run what software on ## which machines (the sudoers file can be shared between multiple ## systems). ## Syntax: ## ## user MACHINE=COMMANDS ## ## The COMMANDS section may have other options added to it. ## ## Allow root to run any commands anywhere root ALL=(ALL) ALL ## Allows members of the 'sys' group to run networking, software, ## service management apps and more. # %sys ALL = NETWORKING, SOFTWARE, SERVICES, STORAGE, DELEGATING, PROCESSES, LOCATE, DRIVERS ## Allows people in group wheel to run all commands %wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL ## Same thing without a password # %wheel ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL ## Allows members of the users group to mount and unmount the ## cdrom as root # %users ALL=/sbin/mount /mnt/cdrom, /sbin/umount /mnt/cdrom ## Allows members of the users group to shutdown this system # %users localhost=/sbin/shutdown -h now ## Read drop-in files from /etc/sudoers.d (the # here does not mean a comment) #includedir /etc/sudoers.d ################################################################################ # Added by David Both, 11/04/2017 to provide limited access to myprog # ################################################################################ # AUDIO guest1=/usr/local/bin/myprog
Figure 1: A default sudoers file with my modifications in bold.
The next group of configuration samples is user aliases. This allows root to sort users into aliased groups so that an entire group can be provided access to certain root capabilities. For the little program I wrote, I added the following alias to this section which defines the alias
AUDIO and assigns two users to that alias.
User_Alias AUDIO = dboth, ruser
It is possible, as stated in the
sudoers file itself, to simply use Linux groups defined in the
/etc/groups file instead of aliases. If you already have a group defined there that meets your needs, such as “audio”, use that group name preceded by a
% sign like so:
%audio when assigning commands available to groups later in the
Further down the
sudoers file is a section with command aliases. These aliases are lists of related commands such as networking commands or commands required to install updates or new RPM packages. These aliases allow the sysadmin to easily allow access to groups of commands.
There are a number of aliases already set up in this section that make it easy to delegate access to specific types of commands. We don’t need any of them for our use case.
The next section sets up some default environment variables. The item that is most interesting in this section is the
!visiblepw line which prevents
sudo from running if the user environment is set to show the password. This is a security precaution that should not be overridden.
This section is the main part of the
sudoers file. Everything necessary can be done without all of the aliases by adding enough entries here. The aliases just make it a whole lot easier by using the aliases already defined to tell
sudo who can do what on which hosts. The examples are self-explanatory once you understand the syntax in this section. So let’s look at the syntax that we find in the command section. In Figure 2 we have a generic entry for our user, ruser.
ruser ALL=(ALL) ALL
Figure 2: A generic entry that says that ruser can run any program on any host as any user.
The first ALL in the line indicates that this rule applies to all hosts. The second ALL allows ruser to run commands as any other user. By default, commands are run as root user but ruser can specify on the
sudo command line that a program is run as any other user. The last ALL means that ruser can run all commands without restriction. This entry would make ruser effectively into root. We won’t be using this entry because we do not want this user to have all of those capabilities.
Note that there is an entry for root as shown in Figure 3. This entry allows root to have all-encompassing access to all commands on all hosts.
root ALL=(ALL) ALL
Figure 3: An entry that says that toot can run any program on any host as any user.
But, of course, I had to try this out so I commented out the line in Figure 3 and, as root, tried to run
sudo. That did work – much to my surprise. Then I used
sudo chown and that failed with the message, “root is not in the sudoers file. This incident will be reported.” This means that root can run everything as root, but nothing when using the
sudo command. This would prevent root from running commands as other users via the
sudo command, but root has plenty of ways around that restriction.
The entry in Figure 4 is the one I added to control access to
myprog. It specifies that users who are listed in the AUDIO group, as defined near the top of the
sudoers file, have access to only the one program,
myprog, on one host, guest1.
Figure 4: This is the entry I added to allow users who are part of the AUDIO group access to
myprog on the host, guest1.
Note that the syntax of the line in Figure 4 specifies only the host on which this access is to be allowed and the program. It does not specify that the user may run the program as any other user.
Figure 5 illustrates using NOPASSWORD to allow the users specified in the group AUDIO to run
myprog without the need for entering their passwords.
AUDIO guest1=NOPASSWORD : /usr/local/bin/myprog
Figure 5: This hypothetical entry would allow users who are part of the AUDIO group access to
myprog without the need to enter their passwords.
I did not do this for my program because I believe that users with
sudo access must stop and think about what they are doing and this may help a bit with that. I just used the entry for my little program as an example.
The wheel specification in the command section of the
sudoers file as shown in Figure 6 allows all users in the wheel group to run all commands on any host. The wheel group is defined in the
/etc/group file and users must be added to the group there for this to work. The
% sign preceding the group name means that
sudo should look for that group in the
%wheel ALL = (ALL) ALL
Figure 6: This entry says that all users who are members of the wheel group as defined in the
/etc/group file can run all commands on any host.
This is a good way to delegate full root access to multiple users without providing the root password. Just adding a user to the wheel group gives them access to full root powers. It also provides a means to monitor their activities via the log entries created by
sudo. Some distributions such as Ubuntu add users’ IDs to the wheel group in
/etc/group which allows them to use the
sudo command to use all privileged commands.
Use case 2: The presentation
We usually think of presentations in terms of slick slides created by LibreOffice Impress or PowerPoint, animated transitions, and graphics, but that need not be the case. On March 3 of this year, I presented an extended session at Open Source 101 in Columbia South Carolina, entitled, “Using and Configuring Bash.”
Now, if you are attending a long session about using Bash, why would you want to see a lot of fancy slides? Personally, I want to see Bash in use. So I created a Bash script that became my presentation. I am not a fast or accurate typist so this also allowed me to preprogram all of the commands I wanted to demonstrate into the Bash script so I would only need to press the
Enter key to move to the next slide containing text or to issue a command. This worked very well for me and the attendees seemed to like it as well because it was a really good use case for Bash scripts.
This is relevant because one and only one of the commands in this 1500 line Bash shell script required root privilege. It would be incredibly insecure to login as root and run the entire program. What if there were to be an error that deleted or mangles some important system-level files? As a sysadmin and a Bash programmer, I am not perfect and errors happen.
So the answer was to run the program as the “student” user and use the
sudo command as a prefix to the one command that required privileged access. Even in the middle of my presentation, typing in the password for the student user was easy. I also used this in my presentation as an example of one appropriate use of
The setup for this use case is the same as for the previous case, just with different user names and command names.
I have used
sudo in these cases for a very limited objective – providing one or two users with access to a single command. I accomplished this with two lines if you ignore my own comments. Delegating the authority to perform specific tasks to users who do not have root access is simple and can save you as a sysadmin a good deal of time. It can also significantly enhance security by providing access to specific commands only when necessary.
sudo command also generates log entries that can help detect problems. The
sudoers file offers a plethora of capabilities and options for configuration. Check the
man files for
sudoers for the down and dirty details.
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