systemd has had its share of detractors, but it seems to be here to stay for Linux admins so we might as well get used to it. This handy
systemd command reference will help you keep your sanity when trying to perform normal administrative tasks. So, until we get something that's more usable, palatable, and desirable than
systemd, please enjoy this list of ten handy commands for your convenience. These commands are in no particular order of importance or relevance.
List unit files
systemd man page: A unit file is a plain text ini-style file that encodes information about a service, a socket, a device, a mount point, an automount point, a swap file or partition, a start-up target, a watched file system path, a timer controlled and supervised by
systemd, a resource management slice, or a group of externally created processes.
$ systemctl list-unit-files UNIT FILE STATE proc-sys-fs-binfmt_misc.automount static dev-hugepages.mount static dev-mqueue.mount static proc-sys-fs-binfmt_misc.mount static sys-fs-fuse-connections.mount static sys-kernel-config.mount static sys-kernel-debug.mount static tmp.mount disabled brandbot.path disabled systemd-ask-password-console.path static systemd-ask-password-plymouth.path static systemd-ask-password-wall.path static session-1.scope static arp-ethers.service disabled auditd.service enabled autovt@.service enabled <many more entries>
Of course, you can always pipe to
grep to see just the enabled services.
$ systemctl list-unit-files |grep enabled auditd.service enabled autovt@.service enabled crond.service enabled dbus-org.fedoraproject.FirewallD1.service enabled dbus-org.freedesktop.nm-dispatcher.service enabled firewalld.service enabled getty@.service enabled irqbalance.service enabled kdump.service enabled lvm2-monitor.service enabled <many more entries>
These unit files, located under
/lib/systemd/system, are roughly equivalent to the legacy init scripts that were located under
/etc/rc.d/init.d. In fact, if you or your software installation create init scripts, a corresponding
systemd unit file is mapped for you. A further explanation is given by
You are looking for the traditional init scripts in /etc/rc.d/init.d, and they are gone? Here's an explanation on what's going on: You are running a systemd-based OS where traditional init scripts have been replaced by native systemd services files. Service files provide very similar functionality to init scripts. To make use of service files simply invoke "systemctl", which will output a list of all currently running services (and other units). Use "systemctl list-unit-files" to get a listing of all known unit files, including stopped, disabled and masked ones. Use "systemctl start foobar.service" and "systemctl stop foobar.service" to start or stop a service, respectively. For further details, please refer to systemctl(1). Note that traditional init scripts continue to function on a systemd system. An init script /etc/rc.d/init.d/foobar is implicitly mapped into a service unit foobar.service during system initialization. Thank you! Further reading: man:systemctl(1) man:systemd(1) http://0pointer.de/blog/projects/systemd-for-admins-3.html http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/Incompatibilities
As you can see,
init.d has been removed in favor of
systemd. It's here to stay until someone comes up with something better. (I'm hoping that someone is rapidly working on a replacement.)
Listing active units displays a lot of useful information about your loaded and active services. The output is too detailed to demonstrate here, but try the following command on your system to see what I mean.
$ systemctl list-units
The status fields are great to see, but the description field is the most useful to me. It provides detailed information about your services.
Start a service
To get a service name, list your unit files and grep for the one you want. Then use the
systemctl command to start your service. I'm using
firewalld as the example.
$ sudo systemctl start firewalld
Surprisingly, or maybe not so surprisingly, there's no response from starting, stopping, or restarting a service. To check the status of a service, you must use the status command.
Checking a service status
To check a service's status, use the
systemctl status service-name command.
$ sudo systemctl status sshd [sudo] password for khess: ● sshd.service - OpenSSH server daemon Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/sshd.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled) Active: active (running) since Wed 2020-04-29 07:44:57 CDT; 2h 17min ago Docs: man:sshd(8) man:sshd_config(5) Main PID: 1055 (sshd) CGroup: /system.slice/sshd.service └─1055 /usr/sbin/sshd -D Apr 29 07:44:57 centos7 systemd: Starting OpenSSH server daemon... Apr 29 07:44:57 centos7 sshd: Server listening on 0.0.0.0 port 22. Apr 29 07:44:57 centos7 sshd: Server listening on :: port 22. Apr 29 07:44:57 centos7 systemd: Started OpenSSH server daemon. Apr 29 07:51:35 centos7 sshd: Accepted password for khess from 192.168.1.85 port 56769 ssh2
I like systemd's status because of the detail given. For example, in the above listing, you see the full path to the unit file, the status, the start command, and the latest status changes.
[ Want to try out Red Hat Enterprise Linux? Download it now for free. ]
Stop a service
Stopping a running service is as easy as starting one.
$ sudo systemctl stop firewalld
Again, you see no response from issuing this command. Issue a service status to check your success or failure.
Restarting a service
If you want to stop and start a service without issuing two commands (sysadmins are a lazy lot, after all), issue a restart.
$ sudo systemctl restart firewalld
No system response is displayed.
System restart, halt, and shutdown
These three tasks are typical ones that sysadmins need to know and are now under the control of
There are multiple ways to restart your systems, but the old standby, reboot, is actually a link to the
systemctl command. I assume that since it works, it links the
systemctl command with the reboot switch added as follows:
$ sudo systemctl reboot
The same link applies to the halt and to the shutdown commands.
Shutdown and halt
It doesn't matter how you used to do it with
halt -p or
shutdown now or whatever, the universal command is now:
$ sudo systemctl poweroff
This command powers down the system.
Set services to run at boot time
You're used to the
chkconfig command to enable your services to run at boot time and under a particular runlevel. Well, those days too are gone, and they have been usurped by the ubiquitous
Enabling a service to run at boot time
To set any service to start at boot, issue the following command. I'm using
firewalld as the example service.
$ sudo systemctl enable firewalld
Disabling a service from running at boot time
To prevent any service from starting at boot time, issue:
$ sudo systemctl disable firewalld
firewalld service will not start at boot time.
This brief but handy
systemd/systemctl reference guide should take some of the pain out of dealing with
systemd. That's the theory, at least. And, as you'll often see in my articles or hear me say out loud, "Everything works on paper." Be sure to let me know on Twitter what you think of my articles and also to suggest new topics.
[ Free online course: Red Hat Enterprise Linux technical overview. ]