In this final installment of my four-part cgroups article series, I cover cgroup integration with systemd. Be sure you also check out parts one, two, and three in the series.
Cgroups with systemd
By default, systemd creates a new cgroup under the
system.slice for each service it monitors. Going back to our OpenShift Control Plane host, running
systemd-cgls shows the following services under the
system.slice (output is truncated for brevity):
└─system.slice ├─sssd.service ├─lvm2-lvmetad.service ├─rsyslog.service ├─systemd-udevd.service ├─systemd-logind.service ├─systemd-journald.service ├─crond.service ├─origin-node.service ├─docker.service ├─dnsmasq.service ├─tuned.service ├─sshd.service ├─NetworkManager.service ├─dbus.service ├─polkit.service ├─chronyd.service ├─auditd.service └─email@example.com
You can change this behavior by editing the systemd service file. There are three options with regard to cgroup management with systemd:
- Editing the service file itself.
- Using drop-in files.
systemctl set-propertycommands, which are the same as manually editing the files, but
systemctlcreates the required entries for you.
I cover these in more detail below.
Editing service files
Let's edit the unit file itself. To do this, I created a very simple unit file which runs a script:
[Service] Type=oneshot ExecStart=/root/generate_load.sh TimeoutSec=0 StandardOutput=tty RemainAfterExit=yes [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target
The bash script has only two lines:
#!/bin/bash /usr/bin/cat /dev/urandom > /dev/null &
When you examine the output of
systemd-cgls, you see that our new service is nested under the
system.slice (output truncated):
└─system.slice ├─cat.service ├─tuned.service ├─sshd.service ├─NetworkManager.service ├─sssd.service ├─dbus.service │ └─firstname.lastname@example.org └─systemd-logind.service
What happens if I add the following line to the systemd service file?
The output of
systemd-cgls shows something curious. The
cat.service file is now deeply nested:
Control group /: ├─my.slice │ └─my-beautiful.slice │ └─my-beautiful-slice.slice │ └─cat.service │ └─4010 /usr/bin/cat /dev/urandom
Why is this? The answer has to do with the way that systemd interprets nested cgroups. Children are declared in the following fashion:
. Since systemd attempts to be helpful, if a parent does not exist, systemd creates it for you. If I had used underscores
_ instead of dashes
- the result would have been what you would have expected:
Control group /: ├─my_beautiful_slice.slice │ └─cat.service │ └─4123 /usr/bin/cat /dev/urandom
Using drop-in files
Drop-in files for systemd are fairly trivial to set up. Start by making an appropriate directory based on your service's name in
/etc/systemd/system. In the
cat example, run the following command:
# mkdir -p /etc/systemd/system/cat.service.d/
These files can be organized any way you like them. They are actioned based on numerical order, so you should name your configuration files something like
10-CPUSettings.conf. All files in this directory should have the file extension
.conf and require you to run
systemctl daemon-reload every time you adjust one of these files.
I have created two drop-in files to show how you can split out different configurations. The first is
00-slice.conf. As seen below, it sets up the default options for a separate slice for the
[Service] Slice=AWESOME.slice MemoryAccounting=yes CPUAccounting=yes
The other file sets the number of CPUShares, and it's called
To show that this method works, I create a second service in the same slice. To make it easier to tell the processes apart, the second script is slightly different:
#!/bin/bash /usr/bin/sha256sum /dev/urandom > /dev/null &
I then simply created copies of the
cat files, replacing the script and changing the CPUShares value:
# sed 's/load\.sh/load2\.sh/g' cat.service > sha256sum.service # cp -r cat.service.d sha256sum.service.d # sed -i 's/256/2048/g' sha256sum.service.d/10-CPUSettings.conf
Finally, reload the daemon and start the services:
# systemctl daemon-reload # systemctl start cat.service # systemctl start sha256sum.service
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Instead of showing you the output from
top, now is a good time to introduce you to
systemd-cgtop. It works in a similar fashion to regular
top except it gives you a breakdown per slice, and then again by services in each slice. This is very helpful in determining whether you are making good use of cgroups in general on your system. As seen below,
systemd-cgtop shows both the aggregation for all services in a particular slice as part of the overall system and the resource utilization of each service in a slice:
Using systemctl set-property
The last method that can be used to configure cgroups is the
systemctl set-property command. I'll start with a basic service file
[Service] Type=oneshot ExecStart=/root/generate_load3.sh TimeoutSec=0 StandardOutput=tty RemainAfterExit=yes Slice=AWESOME.slice [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target
systemctl set-property command places the files in
/etc/systemd/system.control. These files are not to be edited by hand. Not every property is recognized by the
set-property command, so the
Slice definition was put in the service file itself.
After I have set up the unit file and reloaded the daemon, I use the
systemctl command similar to the following:
# systemctl set-property md5sum.service CPUShares=1024
This creates a drop-in file for you located at
/etc/systemd/system.control/md5sum.service.d/50-CPUShares.conf. Feel free to look at the files if you are curious as to their contents. As these files are not meant to be edited by hand, I won't spend any time on them.
You can test to see if the changes have taken effect by running:
systemctl start md5sum.service cat.service sha256sum.service
As you see in the screenshot below, the changes appear to be successful.
sha256sum.service is configured for 2048 CPUShares, while
md5sum.service has 1024. Finally,
cat.service has 256.
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Hopefully, you learned something new throughout our journey together. There was a lot to tackle, and we barely even scratched the surface on what is possible with cgroups. Aside from the role that cgroups play in keeping your system healthy, they also play a part in a "defense-in-depth" strategy. Additionally, cgroups are a critical component for modern Kubernetes workloads, where they aid in the proper running of containerized processes. Cgroups are responsible for so many things, including:
- Limiting resources of processes.
- Deciding priorities when contentions do arise.
- Controlling access to read/write and mknod devices.
- Providing a high level of accounting for processes that are running on a system.
One could argue that containerization, Kubernetes, and a host of other business-critical implementations would not be possible without leveraging cgroups.
If you have any questions or comments or perhaps other article ideas, feel free to reach out to me on Twitter. I look forward to hearing all your feedback.